Beginnings of the Great Northern War Tsar Peter the Great was not content with the access to the Black Sea he had won with the capture of Azov from the Ottoman Empire, he also wanted access to the Baltic Sea, which was blocked by the Swedish provinces of Karelia , Ingermanland (Ingria), Estland (Estonia) and Livland (Livonia/Latvia). Catherine the Great’s Second War with the Turks (1787-92) (Russo-Turkish War of 1787- 92). Catherine II chose not to openly pick a side in the war. All told, she added some 200,000 miles² (518,000 km²) to Russian territory, and she further shaped the Russian destiny to a greater extent than almost anyone before or since, with the possible exceptions of Lenin, Stalin, and Peter the Great. After a great victory at Poltava over Swedish forces he gained access to the Baltic Sea. Catherine and Peter reportedly first met when they were 10 years old and she found him "repulsive" from the start. These plans however never came to effect, and Catherine reigned until her death. However a great part of nobility regarded her reign as a usurpation, tolerable only during the minority of her son Grand Duke Paul. She endorsed the right of neutral countries to trade by sea with In this book, Brian Davies offers a thorough survey of the war and explains why it was crucial to the political triumph of Catherine the Great, the southward expansion of the Russian Empire, and the rollback of Ottoman power from southeastern Europe. Lestocq and Frederick wanted to strengthen the friendship between Prussia and Russia to weaken the influence of Austria and to ruin the chancellor Bestuzhev, on whom Tsarina Elizabeth relied, and who acted as a known partisan of Russo–Austrian co-operation. Catherine the Great’s Second War with the Turks (1787-92) (Russo-Turkish War of 1787- 92). The choice of Sophie as wife of the prospective tsar — Peter of Holstein-Gottorp — resulted from some amount of diplomatic management in which Count Lestocq and Frederick II of Prussia took an active part. or 25 December 1761 ( O.S. 1. At the instigation of her factotum, Ivan Betskoi, she wrote a manual for the education of young children, drawing from the ideas of John Locke, and founded the famous Smolny Institute for noble young ladies. She expanded her empire by conquest and diplomacy making it one of the leading powers in Europe. Peter failed to nominate a successor, and was succeeded by his wife, Catherine I. Catherine read widely and kept up-to-date on current events in Russia and in the rest of Europe. However, the Swedish proved too strong an… Empress Catherine the Great of Russia began the first League with her declaration of Russian armed neutrality in 1780, during the War of American Independence. The war followed the external tensions within Poland. She Wasn't Born as a Catherine or as a Russian Born in 1729 in Prussia (modern day Poland) as Sophie von Anhalt-Zerbst, the woman who would later be known as Catherine the Great was the oldest daughter of a German prince named Christian August von Anhalt-Zerbst. Catherine the Great’s name wasn’t Catherine, and she wasn’t even Russian. And every character—from German to Russian—speaks in a blatantly British accent. While Peter the Great had succeeded only in gaining a toehold in the south on the edge of the Black Sea in the Azov campaigns, Catherine completed the conquest of the south. "Don't tell me that handsome guy is Peter," Carol Leonard, an emeritus fellow at St. Antony's College at Oxford University, told the Times of her reaction to Hoult as the Emperor. Keeping Paul in a state of semi-captivity in Gatchina and Pavlovsk, she resolved not to allow her son to dispute or to share in her authority. The book, Russian Imperial The daughter of Peter the Great, Elizabeth of Russia seized power in 1741 in a bloodless coup. The last of her lovers, Prince Zubov, 40 years her junior, proved the most capricious and extravagant of them all. Palace intrigue generated several myths about the circumstances of her death that put her in rather unfavorable light. Catherine, born Princess Sophia August Fredrica on May 2, 1729, was 14 years old (not 19, as depicted on the show) when she was selected to marry the man who would become Emperor Peter III. …Swedish war effort in the Russo-Swedish War of 1788–90. Renowned as Catherine the Great, Empress of all the Russias, this remarkable woman was neither Russian nor originally named Catherine. Catherine II is unwilling to accept his credentials because of the Russian Empire’s continued diplomatic ties with Great Britain. The Hermitage Museum, which now occupies the whole of the Winter Palace, began as Catherine's personal collection. In 1780 she set up a group designed to defend neutral shipping against Great Britain during the American Revolution, and she refused to intervene in that revolution on the side of the British when asked. This content is imported from {embed-name}. Although Catherine only inches toward power in season 1, in real life, she seized the throne from Emperor Peter in 1762, six months after he assumed the top spot. Elizabeth even reportedly arranged the marriage between Peter and Catherine. You may be able to find more information about this and similar content at, The 'Cinderella' Remake Will Now Premiere In July, Live-Action 'Peter Pan' Movie Welcomes Cast Member, The Best TV and Movie Wedding Dresses of All Time, What We Can Expect From 'Bridgerton' Season 2, 'Selena: The Series' Season 2 Drops This May. …Swedish war effort in the Russo-Swedish War of 1788–90. In July 1762 Catherine's husband committed the grave error of retiring with his Holstein-born courtiers and relatives to Oranienbaum, leaving his wife at Saint Petersburg. He lauded her with epithets, calling her "The Star of the North" and the " Semiramis of Russia" (in reference to the legendary Queen of Babylon). She wrote comedies, fiction and memoirs, while cultivating Voltaire, Diderot and D'Alembert — all French encyclopedists who later cemented her reputation in their writings. This character has yet to make an appearance on The Great. She married Grand Duke Peter, grandson of Peter the Great and heir to the Russian throne. Nikolay Repnin had forcefully passed the Perpetual Treaty of 1768 between Poland and Russia. Vice Admiral Wilhelm von Dessin who commanded the small Russian squadron agreed to render honors to the Duke Charles but not to the Sw… 77 40. This treaty was highly contradictory to the well being of Poland and led to massive revolts by nobility, church, and peasants. (Side note: There's no link between Leo and the invention of the Moscow Mule, though the character does appear to be quite the mixologist.). A minor German princess with a very remote Russian ancestry, and a first cousin of Gustav III of Sweden and... Coup d'état. Peter's insistence on supporting his native Holstein in an unpopular war eroded much of the support he had in the nobility. That means she had to endure 17 years in a "loveless" marriage before overthrowing him on June 28, 1762—six months into Peter's reign. While Peter took a mistress (Elizabeth Vorontsova), Catherine carried on liaisons with Sergei Saltykov and Stanislaw Poniatowski. In accordance with the custom then prevailing in German nobility, she received her education chiefly from a French governess and from tutors. While neither of those facts are proven, history shows she had an artistic spirit during her time as ruler. The Russian Empire did not recognize the United States as a sovereign nation until the war ended. Yes, although the pair never met in person. Catherine's patronage furthered the evolution of the arts in Russia more than that of any Russian sovereign before or after her. In order to stop the reforms of the May Constitution and to prevent the modernization of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, she provided support to a Polish anti-reform group known as the Targowica Confederation. The battle left the Russian fleet in tatters as 53 ships were sunk by the Swedes. In reality, the Russian-Swedish war took place two years before Catherine and Peter were even married. Throughout the series, Catherine references her progressive ideals, quoting French philosophy and citing works from Enlightenment philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau. After Denmark declared war on Sweden in 1789, things looked bleak for the Swedes. On the show, Elizabeth kills the imprisoned child when Peter is suspected to be dying of arsenic poisoning and contingent of the Russian court wanted Ivan to take power over Catherine. When she wrote her memoirs she represented herself as having made up her mind when she came to Russia to do whatever had to be done, and to profess to believe whatever required of her, in order to become qualified to wear the crown. With successful battles led by Catherine the Great, the Russian empire secured the control of the Black Sea and the Russian Empire became a dominant power of Europe. Catherine's foreign minister, Nikita Panin, exercised considerable influence from the beginning of her reign. The Swedish open sea fleet sailed from Karlskrona on 9 June 1788, with Duke Charles of Södermanland as its commander. AD “The Great” leans on facts when it wants, and fictionalizes where it must. The Ottomans started a second Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792) during Catherine's reign. The ruler of the Russian empire: Peter the Great, the King of Danes: Fredrick IV, and the King of Poland-Lithuania: Augustus, had their share of interests in the Swedish empire. The marriage proved unsuccessful — due to the Grand Duke Peter's impotence and mental immaturity he may not have consummated it for twelve years. Accordingly, she acted as mediator in the War of the Bavarian Succession ( 1778– 1779) between Prussia and Austria. Most of the couple's lackluster lovemaking is only out of duty—to create the next in line to the throne. "She trained herself, learning and beginning to form the idea that she could do better than her husband," historian Virgina Rounding told TIME when fact-checking the more historically sound HBO miniseries Catherine the Great. Novgorodian and Kievan Rus' Date ... Catherine the Great's Swedish War (1788–1790) Catherine, although not descended from any previous Russian emperor, succeeded her husband and became reigning empress, following an earlier precedent when Catherine I succeeded Peter I in 1725. ), Peter succeeded to the throne as Peter III of Russia and moved into the new Winter Palace in St. Petersburg; Catherine thus became Empress Consort of Russia. In 1763 Catherine placed Stanisław Poniatowski, her former lover, on the Polish throne. Compounding matters, he insisted upon Russian intervention in a dispute between Holstein and Denmark over the province of Schleswig. By historical account, Catherine's first lover was Russian officer Sergei Saltykov, but her true love was Grigory Orlov Potemkin. The Swedes were commanded by young Charles … In reality, the Russian-Swedish war took place two years before Catherine and Peter were even married. Per TIME, the Russian Orthodox Church renamed the new bride Catherine. Catherine made Russia the dominant power in south-eastern Europe after her first Russo-Turkish War against the Ottoman Empire (1768–74), which saw some of the heaviest defeats in Ottoman history, including the 1770 Battles of Chesma and Kagul. Born Sophie Friederike Auguste von Anhalt-Zerbst on May 1729 in Stettin (now Szczecin in Poland), she became Catherine in 1745, after being received into the Russian Orthodox Church. After the death of the Empress Elizabeth on January 5, 1762 ( N.S.) Catherine had a reputation as a patron of the arts, literature and education. Savannah Walsh is an Editorial Fellow at In the season 1 finale, Peter surprises Catherine on her 20th birthday with a visit from Voltaire, one of her favorite writers. She lured the scientists Leonhard Euler and Peter Simon Pallas from Berlin to the Russian capital. She appointed Dimsdale a Baron and conferred a title on the peasant boy who provided the smallpox material she injected. On the series, the serfs burn and Catherine's sacrifice is fruitless. However, her reign also featured omnipresent censorship and state control of publications. Bromilow's Aunt Elizabeth who has kama sutra paintings on her walls and the ability to train butterflies. But Elizabeth took a strong liking to the daughter, and the marriage finally took place in 1744. Between 1788 and 1790 Catherine the Great had also fought a war against Sweden. Yes! Between 1788 and 1790 Catherine the Great had also fought a war against Sweden. //