Vigorous and fast growing, this birch has a large, pyramidal, upright habit and bears diamond-shaped, glossy green leaves with silvery undersides, which turn yellow in fall. Male flowers pendulous catkins, female flowers short, erect catkins, TIME OF YEAR: Different parts different times of the year. The River Birch is a large tree which is a welcome inclusion in planting schemes in which tree in wet or boggy ground when choice may otherwise be limited to utility trees with less ornamental qualities. River birch is perhaps the most culturally adaptable and heat tolerant of the birches. River Birch in Howard Co., Maryland (1/25/2017). Birch is a deciduous tree that reaches between 10 and 30 meters high, it is generally grown as an ornamental species for parks and gardens. Extra Information. Adapts well to heavy clay soils of Missouri and will tolerate poor drainage. Male catkins are long and yellow-brown in colour, and hang in groups of two to four at the tips of shoots, like lambs' tails. Scientific Name Genus: Betula. The foliage is eaten by deer and other browsers. Smooth in young trees, the bark gets rugged at the base in older trees. eastern US; zones 4-9. Look for young twigs that are still attached to the tree or have very recently fallen, perhaps on a live branch that broke off in a wind storm. In the spring they mature as the leaves develop, becoming pendulous. It also has a more intriguing, salmon-colored, bark. Grows best in medium to wet soils in full sun to part shade. This habit might not please neighbors. Golden brown on twigs and young branches, the bark matures to silvery white with black clefts. Leaves. Growing river birch . Pollination results in the birch's fruit, small cones that are packed with hairy seeds. Family Betulaceae . Catkins on a river birch are 1.5 inches long. Betula nigra is an Iowa native. Birch twigs, leaves, and catkins. Medium to fast growth rate. Birch Tree Catkins, White Birch Catkins Showing Good Year, we have many images of Birch Trees Also, a great enticement to songbirds are their small but plentiful seeds. zone 4; in the wild, limited to moist areas and is most commonly found along stream banks and areas that flood; Habit and Form . Native Habitat . Photo by Karan A. Rawlins, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org. Root System Of River Birch Tree. Leaves are bright and shiny green in spring and summer. Native to the swamps and river banks of NE America, Betula nigra grows well on wet ground. River Birch in Howard Co., Maryland (1/25/2017). The small but plentiful seeds are appreciated by a wide range of songbirds. The river birch produces separate male and female flowers in the form of catkins. Silver birch is monoecious, meaning both male and female flowers (catkins) are found on the same tree, from April to May. Oval to pyramidal when young becoming rounded to irregular with age. The catkins of the River Birch are used by redpolls and pine siskins. How to Grow Birch Trees. Foliage turns golden in fall. River birch is a medium-sized tree with an irregular, broad, spreading crown. Salmon-pink, smooth and shiny at first, the bark flakes and curls in cinnamon-brown to blackish sheets. History/Lore River birch wood was once used for ox yokes, wooden shoes and other products around the farm. On this occasion we will not dedicate the article to talk in general about birch tree, but we will focus on specifically covering two of the most popular varieties, the River Birch and the Silver Birch. River birch also has a good autumn colour in shades of buttery yellow. River birch wood was once used for ox yokes, wooden shoes and other products around the farm. My father now uses, at his house in Oklahoma City, the rolled polymer gutter guards you unwind and fit into the gutters to block leaves. Identification Notes. Female catkins are smaller, short, bright green and erect. Birches, including river birch, can be messy -- their male flowers are long, drooping catkins that drop through late spring and early summer. see more; Synonyms Betula rubra. Single or multistem. River Birch Betula nigra Birch family (Betulaceae) Description: This tree is 40-90' at maturity, often forming a trunk that divides early and developing an irregular crown. The fruit is not ornamentally significant. Betula occidentalis, the water birch or red birch, is a species of birch native to western North America, in Canada from Yukon east to western Ontario and southwards, and in the United States from eastern Washington east to western North Dakota, [citation needed] and south to eastern California, northern Arizona and northern New Mexico, and southwestern Alaska. Male catkins of River Birch in Montgomery Co., Maryland (12/28/2014). Photo by Robert Ferraro. River birch leaves and female catkin in fall. Prefers moist, acidic, fertile soils including semi-aquatic conditions, but also tolerates drier soils. River Birch in Montgomery Co., Maryland (3/31/2020). It is the only native birch that does well in low elevations of the south. River Birch has dark green foliage throughout the season. Advertisement With a choice of 35 species globally, and many cultivars, there are options for both wet and dry soils. METHOD OF PREPARATION: Like all the other birches. Betula nigra, or River Birch, is a deciduous, upright, flowering tree with cinnamon brown, exfoliating bark and yellow fall foliage that tends to drop off the tree quickly. They are wind and ice tolerant, adding to their value in the landscape. River birch put out catkins in the spring which can remain until autumn, adding to the splendor of its yellow fall color. It can be planted as a stately, single specimen or in groups to … Landscape Attributes. River Birch catkins in Harford Co., Maryland (4/26/2018). River Birch (Betula nigra) Habitat. River birches are available in single stem or the more attractive multi-stem forms. River birch is a popular, fast-growing native tree for the home landscape. not the best birch for fall color ; Flowers. Better disease and insect resistance than other birch species; also very resistant to bronze birch borer. Depending on their cultivation, river birch trees grow either as single- or multi-stemmed trees. River birches are also resistant to bronze birch borer; other pest may cause minimal damage. The pointy leaves turn an outstanding yellow in the fall. Tiny monoecious (male and female) flowers appear in early spring in separate catkins on the same tree. The Black Birch. Birch are available as single trunk trees or those with multi-trunks as clumps. Dark green foliage turns a beautiful buttery yellow in the fall. River Birch is a deciduous tree with a more or less rounded form. Female catkin of river birch. Paper Birch Catkins: Winged Nutlets & Bracts Dispersing. Attractive salmon-pink to reddish-brown bark exfoliates to reveal lighter inner bark. Live twigs, fresh leaves, and even pollen catkins can be foraged from birches to make a peppery, minty tea rich in vitamin C. Your best bet for birch tea during the colder months is to forage twigs. River Birch features subtle chartreuse catkins in early spring. River birch tree catkins draw such songbirds as redpolls and pine siskins. History/Lore. The catkins of the River Birch are used by redpolls and pine siskins. Leaves are alternate, simple, somewhat triangular to egg-shaped, 1½–3½ inches long, 1–2 inches wide; margins densely toothed; upper surface shiny dark green, lower surface whitish, very hairy. Paper birch (Betula papyrifera) produces separate male and female flowers on the same tree, both in the form of catkins (cylindrical clusters of flowers).The catkins form in the fall and overwinter in a dormant state. The small but plentiful seeds are appreciated by a wide range of songbirds. Photo by Robert Ferraro. Birches make great trees for a medium-sized garden, With their attractive bark, light canopy and elegant catkins, birches make great trees for a medium-sized garden. The trees are tolerant of excessive water but require full sun for proper growth. Along with attractive yellow catkins, they emerge a vibrant lime green, heralding the start of spring, and darken as the season progresses. This species is resistant to bronze birch borer (BBB). Photo by Josh Emm. River birch (Betula nigra): Sometimes called black birch, this species has a much darker trunk than the paper birch, but still has the characteristic flaky surface. It has dark green foliage throughout the season. The foliage is eaten by deer and other browsers. Betula pendula, commonly called silver birch or European white birch, is a graceful medium-sized tree with slender pendulous branches and attractive bark. Their foliage attracts deer and other wildlife foraging for food, as well. The peeling brown bark is extremely showy and adds significant winter interest. River Birch Catkins . 'Heritage' is one of the most common varieties that grows faster, has larger, glossier leaves, and is more disease resistant than the straight species. 40-70' tall, 40-60' wide. ENVIRONMENT: Floodplains and wooded stream banks. Female flowers: erect catkins ½- to 1½-inch tall. The fruit is not ornamentally significant. It often has multiple trunks. This is the only birch native to lowland areas of the southeastern US, and it is typically found in wet areas such as floodplains of rivers and streams. They are self-fertilizing and require only an individual specimen to produce seed. The male and female flowers are produced individually in the form of Catkins and are produced around April and May. River Birch. There are many varieties of birch trees – paper, gray, yellow, river, and white birch – though the paper birch is perhaps the most distinctive, with its curling white bark. The many varieties of river birch allow you to get the characteristics you prefer. catkins of small nutlets ; Bark. Photo by Jane Hill. The peeling brown bark is extremely showy and adds significant winter interest. River birch can grow as high as 90 feet. It features subtle chartreuse catkins in early spring. Consider using soaker hoses and bark mulches to keep the root zones cool and moist. Growth Habit. Genus Betula can be deciduous trees or shrubs, usually colouring well in autumn and often with striking white, pink, or peeling brown bark; separate male and female catkins open before or with the leaves in spring . It is the only Birch found a low altitudes in the southeastern United States. Dried River Birch Catkins . The pointy leaves turn an outstanding yellow in the fall. It is a medium-sized tree often cultivated as an ornamental because of its shaggy, brownish, papery bark that peels in layers. While thousands of seeds can be produced from a single tree, few will germinate. catkins ; male flowers are 2" to 3" in bloom, 0.75" prior to bloom ; female flowers are 1" to 1.5" long ; male catkins usually in 3's ; Fruit . The flowers appear from April to May. River birches are monoecious (hermaphidilic) trees with brown hanging male catkins and green female flowers (erect catkins) that are produced in spring months April-May. Family Name: Betulaceae. The trunk bark of older mature trees is gray-brown and scaly, exfoliating only slightly, while the trunk bark of young trees exfoliates extensively, becoming ragged with patches of reddish brown, dull orange, or pinkish tan. Betula nigra (River Birch) is a bushy deciduous tree prized for its incredible peeling bark. The roots of River Birch are far reaching but are non-invasive. 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