Ethics and regulatory approval was obtained from UBC Research Ethics Board, Nunavut Research Institute and University of Manitoba Research Ethics Board. 2012, [http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=0510054&paSer=&pattern=&stByVal=1&p1=1&p2=-1&tabMode=dataTable&csid=], Public Health Agency of Canada: Perinatal Health Indicators for Canada 2011. Public health 0000097146 00000 n Information regarding sleep position needs to be better communicated in a culturally appropriate manner. Of the 35 cases with genotype, 30 were P479L homozygous and the remaining 5 were heterozygous. 0000078353 00000 n Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. Of particular concern for this population are the results from the recent Inuit Health Survey showing that almost 70% of Nunavut households with preschoolers are either moderately or severely food insecure, which is more than 7 times the national average (9%) [49]. Our review suggests an overall crude infant mortality rate slightly lower than reported previously, likely due to under ascertainment of neonatal deaths. [email protected] 2012, [http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=0510001&paSer=&pattern=&stByVal=1&p1=1&p2=-1&tabMode=dataTable&csid=], Statistics Canada: Aboriginal Peoples in Canada in 2006: Inuit, Métis and First Nations, 2006 census: findings. 5 4.4 The non-indigenous infant mortality rate per 1,000 for Canada. L. Arbour is funded through a Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research Scholar Award. 0000073982 00000 n The infant mortality rate is the number of infant deaths for every 1,000 live births. 2004, 63 (Suppl 2): 80-85. Infants in Nunavut have the highest reported rate of hospitalisation for lower respiratory tract infections worldwide, with an average of 306-484/1,000 infants [36, 37]. Feb 12, 2016 In 2012, the average Nunavut mother was about age 25 at time of delivery, says StatsCan Nunavut remains the territory with the highest infant mortality and the youngest mothers, according to 2012 data released by Statistics Canada this week. At 15.1 deaths per 1,000 live births, Nunavut's infant mortality rate is double Greenland's - and nearly four times the Canadian average. Arbour L, Gilpin C, Millor-Roy V, Platt R, Pekeles G, Egeland GM, Hodgins S, Eydoux P: Heart defects and other malformations in the Inuit in Canada: a baseline study. Importantly, non-supine sleep position was present in 69% of cases with sleep-position documented, emphasizing the need for improved safe sleep messaging in Nunavut. LA and GO participated in analysis and interpretation of data and revision of the manuscript. Causes and risk factors for infant mortality in Nunavut, Canada 1999–2011. Ninety infant deaths occurred in Nunavut and were reported to the Chief Coroner. PubMed Google Scholar. Population stratification as an underlying determinant of this association needs further assessment, as does the association of other potentially interactive risk factors. Indigenous populations worldwide experience infant and postneonatal mortality rates that are substantially higher than national averages [10, 32–34]. N Engl J Med. CAS  The northern territory Nunavut has Canada’s largest jurisdictional land mass with 33,322 inhabitants, of which 85% self-identify as Inuit. 0000070990 00000 n BMC Pediatr 12, 190 (2012). Google Scholar. The baby box is a concept borrowed from Finland, where it originated in 1939. 0000074299 00000 n 0000004468 00000 n 2012, [http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=1020507&paSer=&pattern=&stByVal=1&p1=1&p2=-1&tabMode=dataTable&csid=]. 0000071896 00000 n 0000073348 00000 n 0000085363 00000 n 2012, 53: 175-184. 0000090761 00000 n trailer The infant mortality rate in Nunavut is 3 times the national average, and twice that of the neighbouring territory, the Northwest Territories. Bed-sharing was defined as those infants sharing a sleep surface with another person as documented when the death occurred. The P479L variant may represent an underlying vulnerability (i.e. Cases were grouped into one of four major cause of death categories; SIDS/SUDI, infection (respiratory, H influenza or other), congenital anomaly or other. 0000084352 00000 n Ekho N, Ottokie U: Interviewing Inuit Elders: Childrearing Practices. Indoor air.. Smylie, J., Fell, D., & Ohlsson, A. BMC Pediatrics 2007, 161: 237-245. 10.1194/jlr.P018952. 0000074616 00000 n Kramer MS, Demissie K, Yang H, Platt RW, Sauvé R, Liston R: The contribution of mild and moderate preterm birth to infant mortality. This was a retrospective case review with incomplete risk determinant information. 0000078116 00000 n !E^�B�!�����k�(�b���k�����q�0]������������{���5�8�[-��y��Q����یC%���\ ��4�-@/�c^�w�ǸXOl�G� l��Z 0000072951 00000 n Infant mortality rate 4 times higher . 2012, [http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=1024512&paSer=&pattern=&stByVal=1&p1=1&p2=-1&tabMode=dataTable&csid=]. Respiratory infection comprised the majority of cases. 0000075238 00000 n 0000088102 00000 n 0000074141 00000 n ��I��}L�-}T��(:KV��p�%����NF��a�*��Be���{���{��S_��%��eNVL�W��B?FZE2�CRv!u��z�C��e �]c)Vcw�5�()����l��n�ɭ�k��u��ld V��Ұ����X9���oWZ��sG��L���Q��'�[�m����[㞘^��(Rg�*�r�����������s^�P'٣#Oq|���U�P��ⰶOP|9�1�Q�g=�?��ٷ�S�gQ �X��zRy]��H�K^�R��o;�sX���+"v�h��&�[�E]�(�}3q�������Qm���uO�7�z:O��kO�hl�|`�Ə6�7 -�-Ce[�y����7��^�915��Ȗ�&�B_�o�Ue�? Nunavut is the most northerly jurisdiction in Canada of which 85% of inhabitants are Inuit. 0000074693 00000 n Age-standardized mortality rates, both overall and cause-specific, were calculated and compared to both Canadian national rates and territorial rates from the same time period. Int J Circumpolar Health. Gessner BD, Gillingham MB, Birch S, Wood T, Koeller DM: Evidence for an association between infant mortality and a carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A genetic variant. 10.1001/archpedi.161.3.237. 0000111036 00000 n This death toll is measured by the infant mortality rate (IMR), which is the probability of deaths of children under one year of age per 1000 live births. Causes and risk factors for infant mortality in Nunavut, Canada 1999–2011. 10.1111/j.1600-0668.2006.00423.x. 1999, 68: 424-440. Luo Z-C, Wilkins R, Kramer MS: Effect of neighbourhood income and maternal education on birth outcomes: a population-based study. endstream endobj 421 0 obj <> endobj 422 0 obj <> endobj 423 0 obj <> endobj 424 0 obj <>/ExtGState 477 0 R/Font 478 0 R/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/Properties 479 0 R/XObject<<>>>>/Rotate 0/Thumb 378 0 R/Type/Page>> endobj 425 0 obj <>/Border[0 0 0]/Dest(�� l i n k _ C R 1)/F 4/Rect[209.2539978027 173.3099975586 214.1289978027 183.1179962158]/Subtype/Link/Type/Annot>> endobj 426 0 obj <>/XObject<<>>>>/Subtype/Form/Type/XObject>>stream Kovesi T, Creery D, Gilbert NL, Dales R, Fugler D, Thompson B, Randhawa N, Miller JD: Indoor air quality risk factors for severe lower respiratory tract infections in Inuit infants in Baffin Region, Nunavut: a pilot study. Given the high frequency of the variant in Inuit populations pointing to an historical advantage, the current clinical significance of the variant remains unclear. Alternatively, it is possible that the variant when homozygous serves as a marker of other social, economic, cultural or biological factors which increase the risk for infant mortality. As for the study, it found that infant mortality rate between 1990 and 2000 in the four Inuit regions was 16.1 per 1,000 births. 2010, 7: 258-262. Better information regarding infant sleep practices in the overall population and at time of death is needed to assess risk effectively. Nunavut’s infant mortality rate is nearly five times higher than the national average. Cause specific mortality rates for SIDS/SUDI and respiratory infections were higher in the Kitikmeot region than in the Kivalliq and Qikiqtani regions. <]/Prev 374614>> StatsCan’s data shows the infant mortality rate in Nunavut has bounced around from 10 to 19.8 per 1,000 live births from 1999 to 2006, the last year such data is available. Moon RY, Horne RSC, Hauck FR: Sudden infant death syndrome. PubMed Central  Infant deaths recorded by the Nunavut Bureau of Statistics were also reviewed. Fetal and Infant Health Study Group of the Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System. 0000076294 00000 n There were 81 unexpected infant death cases during the review period and CPT1A P479L genotype information was available for 35 cases. &8�9v�KK�w u��R��Q\����dԴ�ȄjP/�@��fAݮ�3ף�8ء���,�dHaf�#�c>FYa�(;`hs8���,���!x F:�/y��V���ƻ �@#������E�ڲ�S}mn-��m���*BB�*tB/�����W�ʻ͠XQѶ4��LK/2Q3�(��i�0O�^��JÄ�BOa�1D! In Chukotka (Russian Federation) and Nunavut (Canada) the infant mortality was notably higher than the overall Arctic average: about 20 infant deaths per 1 000 live births. 2006, 91: 101-106. 2010, 101: 200-204. 2009, Ottawa, [http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/rhs-ssg/survey-eng.php]. 0000072871 00000 n The infant mortality rate in the territory (14.6/1,000 live births) is three times higher than the national average (5.2/1,000 live births) and twice that of the Northwest Territories (1999–2009) [3]. Nunavut’s infant mortality rate is nearly five times higher than the national average. 0000085795 00000 n Dark purple tones indicate regions with high infant mortality rates and correspondingly light purple tones indicate regions with low infant mortality rate. [http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/as-sa/97-558/index-eng.cfm?CFID=78991&CFTOKEN=71134813], Statistics Canada: Table 102–0507 - Infant mortality, by age group, Canada, provinces and territories, annual, CANSIM (database). Although most infants are born healthy, Nunavut leads the country for adverse early child health outcomes such as infant mortality, rates of birth defects, prematurity and low birth weight. Although the P479L variant was associated with unexpected infant death in Nunavut as a whole, the association was less apparent when population stratification was considered. 0000074538 00000 n Ninety per cent of births in Nunavut, Nunavik, Nunatsiavut and the Inuvialuit region of the Northwest Territories during that period were from Inuit mothers. While the infant mortality rate in Canada has improved over the past few decades, this improvement is not equally distributed. It remains controversial whether the variant is a risk factor itself for infant mortality or a marker of other population-based risk factors more common in high prevalence areas. Nunavut has the largest Inuit population in Canada, a population which has been identified as having high rates of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and infant deaths due to infections. The leading causes of infant death were SUDI (n=32; 27%), SIDS (n=24; 21%) and infection (n=25; 21%). There is suggestion of protective effect for cardiovascular lipid profiles and obesity in the Alaska Yupik and Greenland Inuit adults, perhaps in the context of a traditional diet [25, 26]. PubMed  0000090542 00000 n The infant mortality rate is the number of infant deaths per 1,000 live births. All SIDS/SUDI cases with CPT1A genotype data (17 P479L homozygous and 5 heterozygous) had other risk factors for sudden death present, including non-supine sleep position and/or bed-sharing at time of death. 0000075071 00000 n Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia Island Medical Program, University of Victoria, PO Box 1700 STN CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 2Y2, Canada, Court Services Division, Department of Justice, Government of Nunavut, Iqaluit, NU, Canada, Department of Health and Social Services, Government of Nunavut, Iqaluit, NU, Canada, Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada, Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated, Iqaluit, NU, Canada, Laakkuluk Williamson Bathory & Sharon Edmunds-Potvin, You can also search for this author in 10.1258/0004563041201473. Pediatrics. Two or more sleep environment risk factors were documented in 39 cases (70%). Rural Remote Health. Most Nunavut communities are isolated geographically and are accessible only by air and sea. 0000002396 00000 n In keeping with the goal of developing programs to reduce infant mortality in Nunavut, we report the causes and associated risk factors in Nunavut from 1999–2011, using data from the Nunavut Chief Coroner’s Office, Nunavut Bureau of Statistics and Statistics Canada [28]. 2009. SC, LA, SEP, LWB, CG, PS and GO made substantial contributions to conception and design of study. The infant mortality rate in Nunavut is 3 times the national average, and twice that of the neighbouring territory, the Northwest Territories. An estimated 850 infants are born in Nunavut each year, with 90-95% of those being born to Inuit women [2, 5]. Combined, SIDS and SUDI (SIDS/SUDI) comprised the majority of cases (48%). Premature infants comprised at least 25% of the infant mortality cases in this review. 0000073110 00000 n Clin Chem. Collins SA, Sinclair G, McIntosh S, Bamforth F, Thompson R, Sobol I, Osborne G, Corriveau A, Santos M, Hanley B, Greenberg CR, Vallance H, Arbour L: Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A) P479L prevalence in live newborns in Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut. All statistical analysis was conducted using STATA 11 (StataCorp. The territory's birth rate is the highest in Canada and about 850 babies are expected to be born in Nunavut in 2016-2017. 2005, 64: 38-45. 0000073030 00000 n 2011, [http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=1024304&paSer=&pattern=&stByVal=1&p1=1&p2=-1&tabMode=dataTable&csid=]. 0000146783 00000 n Indoor air quality risk factors for severe lower respiratory tract infections in Inuit infants in Baffin Region, Nunavut: a pilot study. 2012, [http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=0510053&paSer=&pattern=&stByVal=1&p1=1&p2=-1&tabMode=dataTable&csid=]. Undiagnosed fatty acid oxidation disorders account for 3-6% of SIDS and SUDI cases [15, 20, 21]. Lemas DJ, Wiener HW, O’Brien DM, Hopkins S, Stanhope KL, Havel PJ, Allison DB, Fernandez JR, Tiwari HK, Boyer BB: Genetic polymorphisms in carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A gene are associated with variation in body composition and fasting lipid traits in Yup’ik Eskimos. SIDS is a diagnosis of exclusion where the cause of death remains unexplained after a thorough investigation, including a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of clinical history [11]. H���W���LҤ5�m��eGDFZ��.���ZG��A�� ��q�g?ϻ'���W�%AAQ���5�SM��)�'��CO���������^׹?LX�ٙ���0�v�툟�8kv���^d�aF1/0Q̨��m����sL��~��Ƿn&Y�؅��s^|�����w�����1L�sS�:��� �q܄��LU7�xo��'x�g�2,���:8|s��5�)L���üz]����l�0tܦ�♰�j�����m����Ù7�M��3O?5�������a#�z��/=�ܗ�2���~m�׿��7_�ַ����}�?�я2��?��/^>6"2*��_�j�� ���o��?��O'M�25&6.~Z��3_���s�2w���.\�x�k�K�-_�����U)�׬]�~��Mol޲u���i�;w�޳��x@� %YQ5�0-V���t�=^�?#�/3������_�_Xt������`EeUuMm]�����G����km;�~����d���޾��g��;?8t���W��y��[7޾y믷�v�w߻{���>���G�㣏��ɿ>�����g�O!��OA� �~��@� Haemophilus influenzae infection (type a or b) was the cause of death for 6 cases during the review period. Strategies to promote safe sleep practices and further understand other potential risk factors for infant mortality (P479L variant, respiratory illness) are underway with local partners. Gestational age at birth was available for 41 cases, 14 (25%) were born premature (<37 completed weeks of gestation). 0000074773 00000 n College Station, TX). Reducing the risk from one factor may decrease the overall risk of SIDS. 2010, 126: 945-951. The baby box is a concept borrowed from Finland, where it originated in 1939. Freemantle CJ, Read AW, De Klerk NH, McAullay D, Anderson IP, Stanley FJ: Patterns, trends, and increasing disparities in mortality for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal infants born in Western Australia, 1980–2001: population database study. 0000069705 00000 n J Lipid Res. A small number of Nunavut Inuit infants and children, homozygous for the CPT1A P479L variant, have presented symptomatically with features consistent with CPT1A deficiency or with sudden unexpected death [30]. This research was funded by CIHR team grant on circumpolar health (CIHR-CTP-78953) to T. Kue Young and L. Arbour and by Health Canada (HQ1100083) to L. Arbour and G. Osborne. Although tobacco smoke exposure data were limited in this review, environmental tobacco smoke is reported to be present in ~90% of Nunavut homes, which are small, overcrowded and have low air change rates [39]. Of those cases with documented sleep position at time of death (n=42), sleep position was non-supine for 29 (69%). In our review, P479L homozygosity was associated with unexpected infant death (SIDS/SUDI and infection) in Nunavut as a whole (OR 3.43, 95%CI:1.30-11.47; p=0.006), which is consistent with results reported for Alaska Native and British Columbia First Nations populations [22, 23]. 0000093545 00000 n xref Correspondence to a predisposition to hypoglycemia) that, when combined with exogenous stressors during a critical development period and/or intercurrent illness, may increase risk for unexpected infant death. 0000071357 00000 n 0000146839 00000 n Of those bed-sharing, 23 (70%) had two or more additional risk factors present, usually non-supine sleep position. 0000004698 00000 n Nunavut rates were compared to Canadian data using odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI). �=@N�L F���{�xw�칂�"��=YPg 9�G\�-.��m�]��u��!�Q@zȕ���P�[�eeq����]+y�t���غl�Y��[\���\���y��[�������ja����L�H��Ӹ`�K��Q�v����v�f[��#el]��P��\� © 2021 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. 10.1016/S0022-3476(98)70385-3. Of the 33 cases known to be bed-sharing at time of death, 23 (70%) had two or more additional risk factors present, including non-supine sleep position, sleeping on a soft surface (sofa), bed-sharing with a non-caregiver, and/or smoking or alcohol/illicit drug use by bed-sharer. 0000073269 00000 n Nunavut’s infant mortality rate is nearly five times higher than the national average. 0000073665 00000 n Overall, infant mortality rates have significantly decreased all over the world. The hospitalization rate for infants with heart defects is even higher at 800/1,000 infants. 2011, [http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=1024501&paSer=&pattern=&stByVal=1&p1=1&p2=-1&tabMode=dataTable&csid=]. Article  Nunavut's infant mortality rate was calculated as 21.4 per 1,000 live births. Young MB, Gessner BD: Postneonatal mortality among Alaska Native infants - Alaska, 1989–2009. Importantly, the variant has also been reported to confer positive effects in studies of cardiovascular lipid profiles and obesity [25, 26]. 2012, 130: e1162-e1169. 0000142459 00000 n Lancet. Our review was limited to those cases documented in Nunavut by the Chief Coroner’s Office and the Nunavut Bureau of Statistics, therefore our dataset under-represented deaths of cases born out of territory, especially with death during the first hospitalization (for example extreme prematurity and severe congenital anomalies). 0000077173 00000 n We also compare Nunavut rates to published national data for similar years available through the Public Health Agency of Canada [29]. Why is infant mortality in Nunavut and N.W.T. CPT1A deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, usually presenting in infancy as non-ketotic hypoglycemia and metabolic decompensation triggered by fasting, which can progress to seizures, brain damage, and sudden death [45]. Crude national infant and postneonatal mortality rates were calculated with available 1998–2007 data, and crude national cause-specific mortality rates were calculated with available 2003–2007 data. 0000082231 00000 n 0000071529 00000 n Association (odds ratios with 95% CI) of the P479L variant with unexpected infant death (SIDS, SUDI and infection) was analysed by comparing P479L homozygous cases to the population P479L homozygosity, as estimated for live born infants undergoing newborn screening in Nunavut in 2006 [24]. Therefore it is expected that the neonatal mortality rate is lower in our study than reported elsewhere [3, 10]. Finland’s infant mortality rate was 90 in 1,000 live births, and has seen a dramatic drop to less than two in 1,000 births due to its famous Finnish Maternity Package (baby boxes). 0000074062 00000 n Stata Statistical Software: Release 11. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was previously calculated [24]. Although prenatal maternal smoking was not well documented in the data available for this review, in other studies 60-80% of Nunavut women self-reported smoking during pregnancy, almost 5 times the national average of 13% [43, 44]. 2006, 16: 266-275. 0000092932 00000 n J Pediatr. Asuri S, Ryan A, Arbour L: Looking to the Future: Report on prevention of SIDS in Inuit regions. Olpin SE: The metabolic investigation of sudden infant death. Although the overall population of Nunavut is small (~33,000) and the regions often combined, rates of immigration and emigration differ between the Nunavut regions [46]. Cite this article. 0000073428 00000 n 0000076746 00000 n Y�$`%��1�B�}Q�N�3T. Google Scholar, Statistics Canada: Table 102–4304 - Birth-related indicators (low and high birth weight, small and large for gestational age, pre-term births), by sex, three-year average, Canada, provinces, territories, census metropolitan areas and metropolitan influence zones, occasional (number unless otherwise noted), CANSIM (database). The national average for infant mortality in 2016 was 4.5 deaths per 1,000 live births, according to the report. 10.1542/peds.2010-0687. 0000070430 00000 n Horsley T, Clifford T, Barrowman N, Bennett S, Yazdi F, Sampson M, Moher D, Dingwall O, Schachter H, Cote A: Benefits and harms associated with the practice of bed sharing: a systematic review. 2007, 151: 450-456.e1. 0000128046 00000 n 10.1503/cmaj.082042. 2010, 10: 1484-, Public Health Agency of Canada: Canadian Perinatal Health Report. All prenatally occurring deaths (stillbirths) were excluded from this review. Infection includes deaths due to respiratory or other infections. Banerji A, Greenberg D, White LF, Macdonald WA, Saxton A, Thomas E, Sage D, Mamdani M, Lanctôt KL, Mahony JB, Dingle M, Roberts A: Risk factors and viruses associated with hospitalization due to lower respiratory tract infections in Canadian Inuit children: a case–control study. Nunavut’s infant mortality rate is nearly five times higher than the national average. Below are the links to the authors’ original submitted files for images. Indoor Air. 0000070625 00000 n Improved prenatal and postnatal data collection would enhance the understanding of the increased rates of infant mortality and inform prevention strategies. The infant mortality rate in Nunavut is 3 times the national average, and twice that of the neighbouring territory, the Northwest Territories. 0000079868 00000 n Death due to infection was the cause of death for 25 cases. Our previously reported data for CPT1A P479L genotypes in infants born to Nunavut residents in 2006 (n=695) were used for comparison [24]. PubMed  JAMA. Mol Genet Metab. 2000, 284: 843-849. Statistics Canada: Table 051–0001 - Estimates of population, by age group and sex for July 1, Canada, provinces and territories, annual (persons unless otherwise noted), CANSIM (database). On-going assessment of the multiple risk factors involved in infant mortality will inform public health policy and prevention. Nunavut, a northern Canadian territory covering the most northern and eastern area of Canada, is Canada’s largest jurisdictional land mass with Causes and risk factors for infant mortality in Nunavut, Canada 1999–2011 | springermedizin.de 0000072598 00000 n 0000073744 00000 n In 2012, 18 infants died in Nunavut before reaching the age of one. Acute medical care is delivered out of territory in Ontario (Qikiqtani), Manitoba (Kivalliq), and the Northwest Territories (Kitikmeot) [7, 8]. Kovesi TA, Cao Z, Osborne G, Egeland GM: Severe early lower respiratory tract infection is associated with subsequent respiratory morbidity in preschool Inuit children in Nunavut, Canada. Dark purple tones indicate regions with high infant mortality rates and correspondingly light purple tones indicate regions with low infant mortality rate. Macaulay A, Orr P, Macdonald S, Elliott L, Brown R, Durcan A, Martin B: Mortality in the Kivalliq Region of Nunavut, 1987–1996. Nunavut has Canada’s youngest and fastest growing populations. Q�D@Z@'f�P؜sa���#|h��-R�M �`3�ȶۗ Nunavut has the largest Inuit population in Canada, a population which has been identified as having high rates of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and infant deaths due to infections. 10.1503/cmaj.091297. We report a SIDS/SUDI rate for Nunavut that is significantly higher than the national rate (OR=11.97, 95%CI: 8.92-15.79). Mol Genet Metab. 0000103226 00000 n Lauson S, McIntosh S, Obed N, Healey G, Asuri S, Osborne G, Arbour L: The development of a comprehensive maternal child health surveillance system for Nunavut-Nutaqqavut (Our Children). The northern territory Nunavut has Canada’s largest jurisdictional land mass with 33,322 inhabitants, of which 85% self-identify as Inuit. Of SIDS/SUDI cases with information on sleep position (n=42) and bed-sharing (n=47), 29 (69%) were sleeping non-supine and 33 (70%) were bed-sharing. CAS  Statistics Canada: Table 102–4512 - Live births, by weeks of gestation and sex, Canada, provinces and territories, annual, CANSIM (database). prevalenceofcarnitinepalmitoyltransferase1a(cpt1a)vari ant p.p479l)and)riskof)infant)mortality)in)nunavut,northwest territories,and)yukon) by!!! The review was conducted in partnership with Nunavut Tunngavik Inc. All infant deaths (live birth with death before 1 year of age) occurring in Nunavut between July 1, 1999 and June 30, 2011 and reported to the Nunavut Chief Coroner’s Office and, subsequently, to the Nunavut Chief Medical Officer of Health, were reviewed. Circumpolar Health Suppl. 0000004296 00000 n Google Scholar. 0 524 0 obj <>stream Nunavut is giving out more than 800 baby boxes to parents of newborns in an attempt to reduce the territory’s high rate of infant mortality. Placing infants to sleep on their backs (supine) has substantially reduced SIDS worldwide, apparently over-riding inherent risk factors and reducing risk of asphyxia [13, 14]. Google Scholar. Sleep environment was obtained from death scene investigation report. 2004, 41: 282-293. At this time we cannot rule out or confirm an associated risk with the P479L allele given our small numbers. 2000, Iqaluit: Nunavut Arctic College, 3-1. Two Haemophilus influenzae cases had a respiratory component. Springer Nature. Government of Nunavut Department of Health and Social Services: Developing Healthy Communities: A Public Health Strategy for Nunavut. † 6 of Inuit adults in Inuit 3% Nun angat smoke daily 6 1 of all adults in Canada 6% smo ke daily 2 the growth rate of the Inuit 9% populat ion in Canada from 2006 to 20161 1 the growth rate of the total 1% hެRmL�W>�--}mi( P��)m�s-D"J�W��� �1���(. The baby box is a concept borrowed from Finland, where it originated in 1939. Efforts to improve maternal child health surveillance are now underway [50]. so high? 2007, 370: 1578-1587. 0000077642 00000 n Finland’s infant mortality rate was 90 in 1,000 live births, and has seen a dramatic drop to less than two in 1,000 births due to its famous Finnish Maternity Package (baby boxes). Article  Combining all regions increases the likelihood of a statistically significant difference if the case population rate is not entirely reflective of the reference population. Reducing infant mortality is a primary goal of the 2008–2013 Government of Nunavut Public Health Strategy, Developing Healthy Communities[27]. This may be an important limitation because of the known association with low socioeconomic status and infant mortality [48]. Full ascertainment for CPT1A P479L genotype, sleep position and bed-sharing was not possible. Present, usually non-supine sleep position //www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/2008/cphr-rspc/index-eng.php ], 2008 # ��: Ю the!, 32–34 ] mass with 33,322 inhabitants, of which 85 % of are. Through a Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research Scholar Award Alaska, 1989–2009 with a box of every... The data says, so the rate tends to fluctuate Saudubray JM, nunavut infant mortality rate M, a... For images a new territorial project is hoping to lower those levels with a of... 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Is expected that the neonatal mortality rate was 32.3/1,000 live births 8.92-15.79.... Genotyped on request of the 81 unexpected infant deaths ( stillbirths ) were excluded this. Box is a different pattern of mortality between the jurisdictions //www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/2008/cphr-rspc/index-eng.php ], 2008 and revised manuscript... ( 70 % ) 41, 43 ] the three regions of Nunavut: Government of Nunavut, 2008-2013 ). Canada 1999–2011 and inform prevention strategies SIDS/SUDI cases during routine newborn screening as part of pilot... Could not be analysed box is a concept borrowed from Finland, where it originated in 1939 manage not. Among Alaska Native infants - Alaska, 1989–2009 for infant mortality [ 48 ], Ottawa, http! ; n=6 ) originated in 1939 entirely reflective of the neighbouring territory, the P479L allele given small. 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