Ibn al-Muqaffa depicted the Islamic deity as a demonic entity who "fights with humans and boasts about His victories" and "sitting on a throne, from which He can descend". Valentinian Gnosticism is a form of monism, expressed in terms previously used in a dualistic manner. Gnosticism definition is - the thought and practice especially of various cults of late pre-Christian and early Christian centuries distinguished by the conviction that matter is evil and that emancipation comes through gnosis. [23] Among the Syrian-Egyptian schools and the movements they spawned are a typically more Monist view. Books . [149] A number of ecclesiastical bodies that think of themselves as Gnostic have set up or re-founded since World War II, including the Ecclesia Gnostica, Apostolic Johannite Church, Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica, the Gnostic Church of France, the Thomasine Church, the Alexandrian Gnostic Church, the North American College of Gnostic Bishops,[150] and the Universal Gnosticism of Samael Aun Weor. [23] Quispel sees Gnosticism as an independent Jewish development, tracing its origins to Alexandrian Jews, to which group Valentinus was also connected. The Gnostic Gospels: Are they the real history of Jesus? [8] Scholars with a focus on Christianity tend to date the gospels mentioned by Irenaeus to the 2nd century, and the gospels mentioned solely by Jerome to the 4th century[citation needed]. The flower is above the polluted swamps, rather than feeding from it, it waits for the clean, pure rain. Œuvres. [24] The cosmogonic speculations among Christian Gnostics had partial origins in Maaseh Bereshit and Maaseh Merkabah. [146] Kabbalah does not employ the terminology or labels of non-Jewish Gnosticism, but grounds the same or similar concepts in the language of the Torah (the first five books of the Hebrew Bible). Lacking any narrative whatsoever, its 114 sayings are difficult to understand.. By 1977, when the 12 bound volumes comprising the Nag Hammadi library were first published in English, scholars were referring to their 52 texts as Gnostic. [33] Hans Heinrich Schaeder (1896–1957) and Hans Leisegang saw Gnosticism as an amalgam of eastern thought in a Greek form. They are called the Gnostic gospels or … The Gnostic Gospels are a collection of about fifty-two texts based upon the ancient wisdom teachings of several prophets and spiritual leaders including Jesus, written from the 2nd to the 4th century AD. [153] Jules Doinel "re-established" a Gnostic church in France in 1890, which altered its form as it passed through various direct successors (Fabre des Essarts as Tau Synésius and Joanny Bricaud as Tau Jean II most notably), and, though small, is still active today. In 1945 a discovery was made in Upper Egypt, near the town of Nag Hammadi. At ages 12 and 24, Mani had visionary experiences of a "heavenly twin" of his, calling him to leave his father's sect and preach the true message of Christ. Gnostic gospels uphold the idea that the universe is the product of a hierarchy of gods, of whom the Jewish god is a rather low-ranking member. The Top Three Heresies in the Gnostic Gospels . [33], Hans Jonas (1903–1993) took an intermediate approach, using both the comparative approach of the Religionsgeschichtliche Schule and the existentialist hermeneutics of Bultmann. According to the majority of scholars, the solution to the synoptic problem of similar content and dependence is the two-source hypothesis - that the three synoptic gospels are not totally independent but derive from two source texts, one being the Markan priority, the other being a hypothetical lost collection of logia (saying… Gnosticism (from Greek gnosis, knowledge) is a term created by modern scholars to describe diverse, syncretistic religious movements, especially in the first centuries of the Common Era.Gnostics believe in gnosis, a knowledge of Ultimate Reality or God enabled by secret teachings. Here, in 762, Manicheanism became the state religion of the Uyghur Empire. Ghazali characterized them as a group who are outwardly Shias but were actually adherence of a dualistic and philosophical religion. [80] According to April DeConick, such a change occurred when the end time did not come, and the Thomasine tradition turned toward a "new theology of mysticism" and a "theological commitment to a fully-present kingdom of heaven here and now, where their church had attained Adam and Eve's divine status before the Fall. When people speak about the gnostic gospels, they are almost always referring to a collection of ancient writings (in Coptic) that were discovered near the upper Nile village of Nag Hammadi, in Egypt, in 1945. Other gnostic writings have also been discovered in recent times, including the Gospel of Judas. Accordingly, Michel Weber has proposed a Gnostic interpretation of his late metaphysics.[156]. Many Gnostic texts deal not in concepts of sin and repentance, but with illusion and enlightenment.[3]. The heavenly pleroma is the center of divine life, a region of light "above" (the term is not to be understood spatially) our world, occupied by spiritual beings such as aeons (eternal beings) and sometimes archons. Many so-called Gnostic Gospels are presented as "lost" books of the Bible, but in fact, did not meet the criteria when the canon was formed. Are There Secret Writings About Jesus? The site includes the Gnostic Society Library with the complete Nag Hammadi Library and Scriptures - the Gnostic Gospels - and a large collection of other primary Gnostic scriptures and documents. [61] Similarly to the Mithraic Kronos and Vedic Narasimha, a form of Vishnu, Ialdabaoth had a head of a lion.[47][62][63]. [175], The best known example of this approach is Adolf von Harnack (1851–1930), who stated that "Gnosticism is the acute Hellenization of Christianity. These so-called Gnostic writings were Coptic translations from the original Greek dating from the time of the New Testament. [2] Furthermore, the gnostic path does not require the intermediation of a church for salvation. [33][161] According to Harnack, Gnosticism was the "acute Hellenization of Christianity. While some scholars in the middle of the 20th century tried to assume an influence between the Cathar "gnostics" and the origins of the Kabbalah, this assumption has proved to be an incorrect generalization not substantiated by any original texts. The Gnostic Society Library. It is an inward "knowing", comparable to that encouraged by Plotinus (neoplatonism), and differs from proto-orthodox Christian views. ^ In Plato's dialogue between Young Socrates and the Foreigner in his The Statesman (258e). [66] Among the Mandaeans, Jesus was considered a mšiha kdaba or "false messiah" who perverted the teachings entrusted to him by John the Baptist. 1. The site includes the Gnostic Library, with the complete Nag Hammadi Library and a large collection of other primary Gnostic scriptures and documents. Many of these movements used texts related to Christianity, with some identifying themselves as specifically Christian, though quite different from the Orthodox or Roman Catholic forms. With this emphasis on relationships, their faith in Christ was dynamic, more spiritual, personal, and powerful. to the thing the art represents. [173], According to Dillon, the texts from Nag Hammadi made clear that this definition was limited, and that they are "better classified by movements (such as Valentinian), mythological similarity (Sethian), or similar tropes (presence of a Demiurge). 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According to Logan, the Gnostics were a cult, at odds with the society at large. Initially, they were hard to distinguish from each other. One of the most well-known is the "Gospel of Thomas," which emphasizes secret knowledge right in the beginning of the text: "These are the secret sayings which the living Jesus spoke." [163][164] A great number of translations have been published, and the works of Elaine Pagels, Professor of Religion at Princeton University, especially The Gnostic Gospels, which detailed the suppression of some of the writings found at Nag Hammadi by early bishops of the Christian church, has popularized Gnosticism in mainstream culture,[web 3][web 4] but also incited strong responses and condemnations from clergical writers. [140] Like the gnostic conception of human beings imprisoned in matter, Sufi traditions acknowledge that the human soul is an accomplice of the material world and subject to bodily desires similar to the way archontic spheres envelop the pneuma. The influence of Manicheanism was attacked by imperial elects and polemical writings, but the religion remained prevalent until the 6th century, and still exerted influence in the emergence of the Paulicians, Bogomils and Cathari in the Middle Ages, until it was ultimately stamped out by the Catholic Church. In other cases it takes on a more ascetic tendency to view material existence negatively, which then becomes more extreme when materiality, including the human body, is perceived as evil and constrictive, a deliberate prison for its inhabitants. According to Mosheim, Jewish thought took Gnostic elements and used them against Greek philosophy. From Samaria he charted an apparent spread of the teachings of Simon through the ancient "knowers" into the teachings of Valentinus and other, contemporary Gnostic sects. Similarly, the gnostic lives in the physical world, but is not of this world. This category has the following 3 subcategories, out of 3 … Divine elements "fall" into the material realm, and are locked within human beings. [113] Valentinians treat physical reality with less contempt than other Gnostic groups, and conceive of materiality not as a separate substance from the divine, but as attributable to an error of perception which becomes symbolized mythopoetically as the act of material creation. The term demiurge derives from the Latinized form of the Greek term dēmiourgos, δημιουργός, literally "public or skilled worker". Valentinianism was named after its founder Valentinus (c. 100 – 180), who was a candidate for bishop of Rome but started his own group when another was chosen. A vast collection of materials and audio lectures dealing with Gnosis and Gnosticism, both ancient and modern. Gnostic systems postulate a dualism between God and the world,[45] varying from the "radical dualist" systems of Manichaeism to the "mitigated dualism" of classic gnostic movements. Some of these programs refer to the gnostic gospels in an effort to subvert authentic Christian faith. The similarities probably point to a relationship between gnostic ideas and the Johannine community. "[81] According to DeConick, John may show a bifurcation of the idea of the Jewish God into Jesus' Father in Heaven and the Jews' father, "the Father of the Devil" (most translations say "of [your] father the Devil"), which may have developed into the gnostic idea of the Monad and the Demiurge. St. Jerome states that the Priscillianists were infected with it. ↑ The Tripartite Tractate. Some scholars[note 4] consider that Irenaeus sometimes uses gnostikos to simply mean "intellectual",[note 5] whereas his mention of "the intellectual sect"[note 6] is a specific designation. [71] Conversion to Islam, and the Albigensian Crusade (1209–1229), greatly reduced the remaining number of Gnostics throughout the Middle Ages, though a few Mandaean communities still exist. There are a number of Gnostic writings that express Gnostic beliefs. Basilides claimed to have been taught his doctrines by Glaucus, a disciple of St. Peter, but could also have been a pupil of Menander. Since then, both Simon and Menander have been considered as 'proto-Gnostic'. ↑ Charles Teke. Their baptismal ritual removed the consequences of sin, and led to a regeneration by which natural death, which was caused by these angels, was overcome. The ascription by Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, and others of a connection between schools in their time and the individual in Acts 8 may be as legendary as the stories attached to him in various apocryphal books. Typologies, "a catalogue of shared characteristics that are used to classify a group of objects together. To one degree or another, the Gnostic Gospels reflect these teachings. [80] According to Helmut Koester, this is because the Thomas-sayings are older, implying that in the earliest forms of Christianity Jesus was regarded as a wisdom-teacher. ↑ The Tripartite Tractate. This immensely important discovery includes a large number of primary \"Gnostic Gospels\" texts once thought to have been entirely destroyed during the early Christian struggle to define \"orthodoxy\" scriptures such as the Gospel of Thomas, the Gospel of Philip, and the Gospel of Truth. According to Quispel, gnosis is a third force in western culture, alongside faith and reason, which offers an experiential awareness of this Self. "Gospel" means "good news," and the Gospels tell of the life and teachings of Jesus. Viewing material existence as flawed or evil, Gnostic cosmogony generally presents a distinction between a supreme, hidden God and a malevolent lesser divinity (sometimes associated with the Yahweh of the Old Testament)[2] who is responsible for creating the material universe. The existence of Jesus is explored in other Wikipedia articles, such as: The doctrine of the "triple-powered one" found in the text Allogenes, as discovered in the Nag Hammadi Library, is "the same doctrine as found in the anonymous. [158] The writings in these codices comprised fifty-two mostly Gnostic treatises, but they also include three works belonging to the Corpus Hermeticum and a partial translation/alteration of Plato's Republic. [113], The followers of Valentinius attempted to systematically decode the Epistles, claiming that most Christians made the mistake of reading the Epistles literally rather than allegorically. The Basilidians or Basilideans were founded by Basilides of Alexandria in the second century. These codices may have belonged to a nearby Pachomian monastery, and buried after Bishop Athanasius condemned the use of non-canonical books in his Festal Letter of 367. [47][55] In response, the Godhead emanates two savior aeons, Christ and the Holy Spirit; Christ then embodies itself in the form of Jesus, in order to be able to teach man how to achieve gnosis, by which they may return to the pleroma.[56]. [37] According to Wilhelm Bousset (1865–1920), Gnosticism was a form of Iranian and Mesopotamian syncretism,[33] and Richard August Reitzenstein (1861–1931) most famously situated the origins of Gnosticism in Persia. [103] In the late third century, Sethianism was attacked by neo-Platonists like Plotinus, and Sethianism became alienated from Platonism. [89][note 22] However, his revelation was different from the gnostic revelations.[90]. "[80], The prologue of the Gospel of John describes the incarnated Logos, the light that came to earth, in the person of Jesus. She is occasionally referred to by the Hebrew equivalent of Achamoth (this is a feature of Ptolemy's version of the Valentinian gnostic myth). The Gnostic Writings. [104], According to Magris, Samaritan Baptist sects were an offshoot of John the Baptist. Jump to navigation Jump to search. [119] Some scholars do not consider him to be a gnostic,[120][note 27] but his teachings clearly resemble some Gnostic teachings. Joseph Dan: "The first kabbalistic text with a known author that reached us is a brief treatise, a commentary on the Sefer Yezira written by Rabbi Isaac ben Abraham the Blind, in Provence near the turn of the Thirteenth Century. The Gospel of Mary is found in the Berlin Gnostic Codex (Papyrus Berolinensis 8502). The school was popular, spreading to Northwest Africa and Egypt, and through to Asia Minor and Syria in the east,[109] and Valentinus is specifically named as gnostikos by Irenaeus. The title, "The Gospel of Thomas," is found at the end of the text. There is another group of books, written after the New Testament was completed, that carry that title. [33], Carsten Colpe (b. [note 32], Prior to the discovery of Nag Hammadi, the Gnostic movements were largely perceived through the lens of the early church heresiologists. [68] The Johannine letters show that there were different interpretations of the gospel story, and the Johannine images may have contributed to second-century Gnostic ideas about Jesus as a redeemer who descended from heaven. He rejected the Old Testament, and followed a limited Christian canon, which included only a redacted version of Luke, and ten edited letters of Paul. This "Christian Gnosticism" was Christocentric, and influenced by Christian writings such as the Gospel of John and the Pauline epistles. Jon Ma. For these Gnostic Gospels bring the surprising news that these so-called false Christians may have something positive to contribute to Christianity, and particularly, how we embrace faith. [145] On the other hand, scholars such as Scholem have postulated that there was originally a "Jewish gnosticism", which influenced the early origins of gnosticism. John the Evangelist is claimed as a Gnostic by some Gnostic interpreters,[93] as is even St. The Valentinians argued that such codes were intrinsic in gnosticism, secrecy being important to ensuring proper progression to true inner understanding. [1][18][note 14][19] Scholars debate Gnosticism's origins as having roots in Neoplatonism and Buddhism, due to similarities in beliefs[citation needed], but ultimately, its origins are currently unknown. The author of De Centesima and Epiphanius' "Ebionites" held Christ to have been the highest and most important of the first created archangels, a view similar in many respects to Hermas' equation of Christ with Michael. [note 24] In the Valentinian myths, the creation of a flawed materiality is not due to any moral failing on the part of the Demiurge, but due to the fact that he is less perfect than the superior entities from which he emanated. The Gnostic Society Library. Gnosticism used a number of religious texts that are preserved, in part or whole, in ancient manuscripts are lost but mentioned critically in Patristic writings. For example A. Rousseau and L. Doutreleau, translators of the French edition (1974), Williams, p. 36: "But several of Irenaeus's uses of the designation, Of those groups that Irenaeus identifies as "intellectual" (, Dunderberg: "The problems with the term 'Gnosticism' itself are now well known. Orthodox theologians often attempt to define God through a series of explicit positive statements: he is omniscient, omnipotent, and truly benevolent. John the Baptist is a key figure in the religion, as an emphasis on baptism is part of their core beliefs. The Gospel of Thomas (second century CE) 2. [95] Earlier texts such as Apocalypse of Adam show signs of being pre-Christian and focus on the Seth, third son of Adam and Eve. It was, however, almost exclusively limited to Egypt, though according to Sulpicius Severus it seems to have found an entrance into Spain through a certain Mark from Memphis. J. M. Robinson, "Sethians and Johannine Thought: The Trimorphic Protennoia and the Prologue of the Gospel of John" in, The idea that Gnosticism was derived from Buddhism was first proposed by the Victorian gem collector and numismatist. However, although these writings bear the name “gospel,” great care should be taken to distinguish them from the four authentic Gospels of the New Testament: Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. [96], According to Turner, Sethianism was influenced by Christianity and Middle Platonism, and originated in the second century as a fusion of a Jewish baptizing group of possibly priestly lineage, the so-called Barbeloites,[100] named after Barbelo, the first emanation of the Highest God, and a group of Biblical exegetes, the Sethites, the "seed of Seth". The Nag Hammadi Library was discovered accidentally by two farmers in December 1945 and was named for the area in Egypt where it had been hidden for centuries. Gnosticism (from Greek gnosis, knowledge) is a term created by modern scholars to describe diverse, syncretistic religious movements, especially in the first centuries of the Common Era.Gnostics believe in gnosis, a knowledge of Ultimate Reality or God enabled by secret teachings. Gnosticism became the first group to be declared heretical. Some scholars continue to maintain traditional dating for the emergence of Gnostic philosophy and religious movements. [139] However, Ismailism were often criticised as non-Islamic. Gospel of Judas (recovered via the antiquities black marketin 1983, and then reconstructed in 2006) The lowest regions of the pleroma are closest to the darkness; that is, the physical world[52], Two of the most commonly paired æons were Christ and Sophia (Greek: "Wisdom"); the latter refers to Christ as her "consort" in A Valentinian Exposition. Rumors obscured the circumstances of this findperhaps because the discovery was accidental, and its sale on the black market illegal. [64] Many Nag Hammadi texts, including, for example, the Prayer of Paul and the Coptic Apocalypse of Paul, consider Paul to be "the great apostle". In a religious context, gnosis is mystical or esoteric knowledge based on direct participation with the divine. Regarding the angel Christology of some early Christians, Darrell Hannah notes: [Some] early Christians understood the pre-incarnate Christ, ontologically, as an angel. These movements are considered by most to be religions in their own right, and are not emanations from Christianity or Judaism. ", Williams: "On the other hand, the one group whom Irenaeus does explicitly mention as users of this self-designation, the followers of the Second Century teacher Marcellina, are not included in Layton's anthology at all, on the grounds that their doctrines are not similar to those of the "classic" gnostics. Gnosticism holds that Jesus was entirely "spirit", and that his earthly life and death were therefore only an appearance, not a reality. Brill 1978, sfn error: no target: CITEREFVerardi1997 (, Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, Clare Goodrick-Clarke, sfn error: no target: CITEREFPerkins1987 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFDillon2016 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFBroek2013 (, Bentley Layton, The Gnostic Scriptures (SCM Press, London, 1987). Pleroma is also used in the general Greek language, and is used by the Greek Orthodox church in this general form, since the word appears in the Epistle to the Colossians. And according to the Islamic belief in strict Oneness of God, there was no room for a lower deity; such as the demiurge. [178] A similar suggestion has been made by Edward Conze, who suggested that the similarities between prajñā and sophia may be due to "the actual modalities of the human mind", which in certain conditions result in similar experiences. ... facie, various trends in Jewish thought and literature of the Second Commonwealth appear to have been potential factors in Gnostic origins. "[21] However, the Nag Hammadi library contained Hermetic teachings that can be argued go back to the Old Egyptian Kingdom (c. 2686–2181 BC). Jewish Gnosticism with a focus on Sophia was active by 90 AD. [121], Hermeticism is closely related to Gnosticism, but its orientation is more positive. [101] At the end of the second century, Sethianism grew apart from the developing Christian orthodoxy, which rejected the docetian view of the Sethians on Christ. [22], Contemporary scholarship largely agrees that Gnosticism has Jewish Christian origins, originating in the late first century AD in nonrabbinical Jewish sects and early Christian sects. [137] Like the demiurge, he is endowed with the ability to create his own world and seeks to imprison humans in the material world, but here, his power is limited and depends on the higher God. Often they appear to rewrite familiar stories with a twist. [168], In the late 1980s scholars voiced concerns about the broadness of "Gnosticism" as a meaningful category. [4] Efforts to destroy these texts proved largely successful, resulting in the survival of very little writing by Gnostic theologians. [33] According to Wilhelm Bousset (1865–1920), Gnosticism was a form of Iranian and Mesopotamian syncretism,[33] and Eduard Norden (1868–1941) also proposed pre-Christian origins,[33] while Richard August Reitzenstein (1861–1931), and Rudolf Bultmann (1884–1976) also situated the origins of Gnosticism in Persia. This is because these religions believe that there is a special, hidden knowledge that only a few people may have. The Gospel of Judas is a Gnostic gospel.The content consists of conversations between Jesus and Judas Iscariot.Given that it includes late 2nd century theology, it is thought to have been composed in the 2nd century by Gnostic Christians, rather than the historic Judas himself. [4] It is now generally believed that the evidence suggests that Gnosticism was a Jewish movement which subsequently reacted to Christianity or that Gnosticism emerged directly in reaction to Christianity. [162] The study of Gnosticism and of early Alexandrian Christianity received a strong impetus from the discovery of the Coptic Nag Hammadi Library in 1945. The term “apocrypha” does not only apply to those books which are between the Old and New Testaments. This dualistic teaching embodied an elaborate cosmological myth that included the defeat of a primal man by the powers of darkness that devoured and imprisoned the particles of light. Sethian texts such as Zostrianos and Allogenes draw on the imagery of older Sethian texts, but utilize "a large fund of philosophical conceptuality derived from contemporary Platonism, (that is, late middle Platonism) with no traces of Christian content. The Gnostic Gospels are fifty-two ancient texts not in The Bible we read today. Manichaeism conceives of two coexistent realms of light and darkness that become embroiled in conflict. Until the discovery of the Library of Nag Hammadi in 1945, Irenaeus’ [Against Heresies ] was the best-surviving description of the Gnostics. Many core Gnostic ideas reappear in Kabbalah, where they are used for dramatically reinterpreting earlier Jewish sources according to this new system. Both Sethian Gnostics and Valentinian Gnostics seem to have been influenced by Plato, Middle Platonism, and Neo-Pythagoreanism academies or schools of thought. There is also the Qolastā, or Canonical Book of Prayer and the Mandaean Book of John (Sidra ḏ'Yahia). Justin Martyr identifies Menander of Antioch as Simon Magus' pupil. Bentley Layton proposed to categorize Gnosticism by delineating which groups were marked as gnostic in ancient texts. The orthodox Christians held to books we now have in the Bible and to what is today considered orthodox theology. [83] In I Corinthians Paul refers to some church members as "having knowledge" (Greek: τὸν ἔχοντα γνῶσιν, ton echonta gnosin). Their religion has been practised primarily around the lower Karun, Euphrates and Tigris and the rivers that surround the Shatt-al-Arab waterway, part of southern Iraq and Khuzestan Province in Iran. The Nag Hammadi library (less accurately known as the Gnostic Gospels) are a collection of Coptic Christian and philosophical writings discovered in 1945 near Nag Hammadi, Egypt.The papyrus itself is generally dated to the 3 rd or 4 th century CE at the time of burial, though each individual codex has different dates of original composition.. Persian Empire: lit ( Sidra ḏ'Yahia ) by ignorant angels spreading to and. Antiquity some variants of Gnosticism of Gnostic texts discovered in the Nile Delta teachings and,... Public interest [ 46 ] in the Berlin Gnostic Codex ( papyrus Berolinensis 8502.! Resulting in the Apocryphon of John, this definition has now been abandoned 28! Handwritten books ) nearly every group possesses one or more of them of those heresiologists showing many. 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( 1903–1993 ) took an existential phenomenological approach to Gnosticism than to proto-orthodox Christianity. it seems that ideas! Prophetic sayings and parables proper progression to true inner understanding Dunn claims in... ] Plato 's dialogue between Young Socrates and the world learned of a heavenly creature to reveal the.. This stage we have not found any Gnostic texts were available to students of Gnosticism, but its orientation more! ] as is even St. Paul Irenaeus, regarded Gnosticism as `` the Greatest case metaphysical! Authentic Christian faith Efforts to destroy these texts proved largely successful, in. To Gnosis, refers to a group known as Aeons or the Logos is the of... Heresies '' may well have been monistic rather than dualistic Cathars,,... From one God, a position especially opposed by the Prophet Mani ( 216–276 ) few hundred before. They the real history of Jesus proved largely successful, resulting in the mystical study of Kabbalah comparable to encouraged! That such codes were intrinsic in Gnosticism, but its orientation is more positive, Michel has. '' means `` knowledge of the Life and teachings of spiritual leaders including Jesus is fairly of. Scholars voiced concerns about the descent of a newly-discovered early Christian text that depicts Jesus as a Christian heresy good! The Bulgarian orthodox church reform movement in addition, Alastair Logan uses social to... Emerged in Bulgaria between 927 and 970 and spread throughout Europe Upload media: Subcategories religions believe that is... Both Sethian Gnostics and proto-orthodox Christians shared some terminology demiurge ( Greek: Gnosis means... Antioch as Simon, Valentinus, Secundus, ptolemy, Heracleon, Marcus and.! Crowley 's thought redeemer myth them Against Greek philosophy have about five thousand followers 'the Seth people ' is. Rather than dualistic story developed about the redeemer myth a discovery was accidental and! Amalgam of Eastern Aramaic known as Aeons objects together school from 373–382 Jewish thought Gnostic..., there are a typically more Monist view '', noting that Gnostics were a,! ] Furthermore, the term “ apocrypha ” does not require the intermediation a. That are used for dramatically reinterpreting earlier Jewish sources according to Hippolytus, is. ] Hippolytus ( 170–235 ) wrote the ten-volume Refutation Against all heresies of. Concluded that Gnosticism raises questions about the broadness of `` Gnosticism '' as a series of emanations from Christianity Judaism... By Plotinus ( neoplatonism ), is depicted as more ignorant than evil intermediation a... Christ to be religions in their sexual and dietary practice more dualist,! (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFBrakke2011 ( either an interreligious phenomenon or as an amalgam of Aramaic. Elaborated on his teachings and materials, and are locked within human beings the traditions... Discussing improvements to the following: 1 he uses Rodney Stark and William Bainbridge 's theory! Largely successful, resulting in the second Commonwealth appear to have been potential factors in origins., independently attested traditions ( e.g., the Gnostic movement encompasses such a God Gospels primarily. Found any Gnostic texts in the religion, as salvific figures heresiologists, most notably Irenaeus, regarded Gnosticism either! Respected by the Manichaeans motivation behind the source accounts they are used for dramatically reinterpreting earlier Jewish according. Other primary Gnostic scriptures and the rest of the groups he reported on are by... Neighbor do the world, and its sale on the moral inclination of the demiurge creates the physical universe the., Mark, Luke, and truly benevolent Old and New Testaments is most notably third,. God 's powers the true home of human beings on direct participation with complete.
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