Second Punic War, also called Second Carthaginian War, second (218–201 bce) in a series of wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire that resulted in Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean. [108] Such Italian forces as were raised resisted operating away from their home cities and performed badly when they did. Scipio was not able to prevent Hasdrubal from leading his depleted army over the western passes of the Pyrenees into Gaul. In response, Roman advisers were sent to train his soldiers and he waged war against the Carthaginian ally Gala. [163] Henceforth it was clear that Carthage was politically subordinate to Rome. Punic Wars. At the end of the First Punic War in 241 BC, Carthage was besieged by its own army of mercenaries, whom they could no longer afford to pay due to the long war and large indemnity paid to the Romans. [166] In 149 BC, fifty years after the end of the Second Punic War, Carthage sent an army, under Hasdrubal, against Masinissa, the treaty notwithstanding. An army was usually formed by combining a Roman legion with a similarly sized and equipped legion provided by their Latin allies; these legions usually had a larger attached complement of cavalry than Roman ones. Mago's arrival in the north of the Italian peninsula was followed by Hannibal's inconclusive Battle of Crotona in 204 BC in the far south of the peninsula. South of the river Ebro, Sagunto was only sea town (it was Hellenized Iberian city), which did not obeyed to Carthaginians, but it entered into an alliance with Rome. [45], The Roman Republic had been aggressively expanding in the southern Italian mainland for a century[46] and had conquered peninsular Italy south of the Arno River by 272 BC, when the Greek cities of southern Italy (Magna Graecia) submitted after the conclusion of the Pyrrhic War. Now Rome had a problem, for the first time in its history, soldiers had been away to war for a long … Date: Between 218 B.C., and 201 B.C. [43] Many battles were decided when one side's infantry force was attacked in the flank or rear and they were partially or wholly enveloped. [52] The immediate cause of the war was the issue of control of the independent Sicilian city state of Messana (modern Messina). spain. His surprise entry into the Italian peninsula led to the cancellation of Rome's planned campaign for the year: an invasion of Africa. [74], Meanwhile, Hannibal assembled a Carthaginian army in New Carthage (modern Cartagena) and led it northwards along the Iberian coast in May or June. The Third Punic War (149-146 BC) Rome was victorious after the Second Punic War. How long did the Second Punic War last? [137], After Publius Cornelius Scipio invaded the Carthaginian homeland in 204 BC, defeating the Carthaginians in two major battles and winning the allegiance of the Numidian kingdoms of North Africa, Hannibal and the remnants of his army were recalled. Quintus Fabius Maximus was elected dictator by the Roman Assembly and adopted the "Fabian strategy" of avoiding pitched battles, relying instead on low-level harassment to wear the invader down, until Rome could rebuild its military strength. After seventeen years of warfare, and at a great loss of life on both sides, Rome defeated Cárthage and came out on top as the new superpower … As Syracuse and Macedonia joined the Carthaginian side after Cannae, the conflict spread. Nevertheless, its commercial enterprises expanded rapidly in the 2nd century bce, exciting the envy of Rome’s growing mercantile community. In 211 BC, Rome contained the threat of Macedonia by allying with the Aetolian League, an anti-Macedonian coalition of Greek city states. The Romans facing Hannibal in southern Italy tricked him into believing the whole Roman army was still in camp, while a large portion marched north and reinforced the Romans facing Hasdrubal. [133], In 210 the Carthaginians caught the Romans off guard during their siege of Herdonia and lifted the siege after a pitched battle in which the Romans lost 13,000 men from their army of 20,000. The Battle of Zama was Hannibal’s only major loss during the entire war — but it proved to be the decisive battle the Romans needed to bring the Second Punic War (Second Carthaginian War) to a close. In both wars, the Carthaginians had also been made to pay Rome massive reparations. The approximate extent of territory controlled by Rome and Carthage immediately before the start of the First Punic War. [165], Rome's African ally, King Masinissa of Numidia, exploited the prohibition on Carthage waging war to repeatedly raid and seize Carthaginian territory with impunity. [29][30] Both Iberia and Gaul provided large numbers of experienced infantry – unarmoured troops who would charge ferociously, but had a reputation for breaking off if a combat was protracted[31][32] – and unarmoured close order cavalry[33] referred to by Livy as "steady", meaning that they were accustomed to sustained hand-to-hand combat rather than hit and run tactics. It started 52 years after the end of the second war. [120], A rebellion in support of the Carthaginians broke out on Sardinia in 213 BC, but it was quickly put down by the Romans. [159] Hannibal attempted to use 80 elephants to break into the Roman infantry formation, but the Romans countered them effectively and they routed back through the Carthaginian ranks. [83], When news of the defeat reached Rome it initially caused panic. Romans Lose at Drepana ... Hannibal was one of the greatest military leaders in history. [142] In this battle, he used his cavalry superiority to attempt to clear the field while attempting to envelop the enemy on both sides with his infantry. 218 to 201 BC. [121][125] It captured several Roman-garrisoned towns on Sicily; many Roman garrisons were either expelled or massacred by Carthaginian partisans. In the Second Punic War, various Roman commanders faced Hannibal, leader of the forces of Carthaginians, their allies, and mercenaries.Four major Roman commanders made a name for themselves in the following main battles of the second Punic War. Second Punic War begins. [83] The combined Roman force under the command of Sempronius was lured into combat by Hannibal on ground of his choosing at the Battle of the Trebia. [131][132] Despite these losses, the Romans besieged Capua, the Carthaginians' key ally in Italy. Meanwhile, in Spain, Roman forces maintained pressure on Carthaginian strongholds. In most circumstances Carthage recruited foreigners to make up its army. [18] Modern historians usually take into account the writings of various Roman annalists, some contemporary; the Greek Diodorus Siculus; and the later Roman historians, Plutarch, Appian and Dio Cassius. [109] By early 215 BC they were fielding at least 12 legions; by 214 BC, 18; and by 213 BC, 22. The period is usually split into three distinct wars – the First Punic War was fought from 264–241 BC, the Second Punic War from 218–201 BC and the Third Punic War from 149–146 BC. [58] After the First Punic War, Carthaginian possessions in Iberia (modern Spain and Portugal) were limited to a handful of prosperous coastal cities in the south. [30][44], Both states possessed large fleets throughout the war, but there were no large-scale naval clashes and Carthage never attempted to use its fleet decisively, effectively giving the Romans naval superiority for the course of the war. Omissions? Scipio was awarded a triumph and received the agnomen "Africanus". Between 215 and 210 BC the Carthaginians attempted to capture Roman-held Sicily and Sardinia, but were unsuccessful. The Romans beat off a Carthaginian attack and captured the island of Malta. The Syracusan army proved no match for the Romans, and by spring 213 BC Syracuse was besieged. The inhabitants of Capua held limited Roman citizenship and the aristocracy was linked to the Romans via marriage and friendship, but the possibility of becoming the supreme city of Italy after the evident Roman disasters proved too strong a temptation. [85] The consuls-elect recruited further legions, both Roman and from Rome's Latin allies; reinforced Sardinia and Sicily against the possibility of Carthaginian raids or invasion; placed garrisons at Tarentum and other places for similar reasons; built a fleet of 60 quinqueremes; and established supply depots at Ariminum and Arretium in preparation for marching north later in the year. Rather than attack Rome directly, he marched on Capua, the second largest town in Italy, hoping to incite the populace to rebel. In 207 Hasdrubal, following Hannibal’s route across the Alps, reached northern Italy with another large army supported by legions of Ligurians and Gauls. [102], Within a few weeks of Cannae a Roman army of 25,000 was ambushed by Boii Gauls at the Battle of Silva Litana and annihilated. The Second Punic War Begins. The peace treaty imposed on the Carthaginians stripped them of all of their overseas territories, and some of their African ones. Massalian people,which were long time rivals of Carthaginians, also encouraged them to go in war. The First Punic War was … The Second Punic War. [101] At least 67,500 Romans were killed or captured. [113] A second force, under Hannibal's youngest brother Mago, was meant to land in Italy in 215 BC but was diverted to Iberia after a major Carthaginian defeat there. [69], In 218 BC there was some naval skirmishing in the waters around Sicily. Gaius Nero, commander of the southern Roman army, slipped away north also and defeated Hasdrubal on the banks of the Metauros River. In the years after the First Punic War, Rome wrested Corsica and Sardinia from Carthage and forced Carthaginians In Cisalpine Gaul (modern northern Italy), the major Gallic tribes attacked the Roman colonies there, causing the Romans to flee to their previously-established colony of Mutina (modern Modena), where they were besieged. [30] On occasion some of the infantry would wear captured Roman armour, especially among Hannibal's troops. [17][14], Other, later, ancient histories of the war exist, although often in fragmentary or summary form. Hannibal ravaged Italy with impunity for 14 years, defeating every Roman army sent out to meet him. [87][96], News of the defeat caused a panic in Rome. Advancing into the territory of some of Rome's new Spanish allies near Acra Leuce they defeated the local tribal forces. [73] An army had previously been created by the Romans to campaign in Iberia, but the Roman Senate detached one Roman and one allied legion from it to send to north Italy. By 212 BC the full complement of the legions deployed would have been in excess of 100,000 men, plus, as always, a similar number of allied troops. 10,000 talents was approximately 269,000 kg (265 long tons) of silver. [147], In the spring of 208 BC, Hasdrubal moved to engage Scipio at the Battle of Baecula. Both legionary sub-units and individual legionaries fought in relatively open order. Rome had emerged the victors in the Fi… However, only part of the besieging force left for Rome and Capua fell soon afterwards. He walked with a huge army including elephants and marched over the Italian Alps from Spain. After three years of brutal fighting, Hamilcar Barca finally managed to end the rebellion. [124], A large Carthaginian army led by Himilco was sent to relieve the city in 213 BC. [53] In 264 BC Carthage and Rome went to war, starting the First Punic War. The Second Punic War is known as Hannibal’s War or against Hannibal. [97][98] Fabius was not popular among the soldiers, the Roman public or the Roman elite, since he avoided battle while Italy was being devastated by the enemy and his tactics would not lead to a quick end to the war. 218 when Hannibal took control of the Greek city and Roman ally Saguntum (in Spain). In the spring of 212 BC the Romans stormed Syracuse in a surprise night assault and captured several districts of the city. [173][174] It was a century before the site of Carthage was rebuilt as a Roman city. [note 5][32][37], Garrison duty and land blockades were the most common operations. In 205 BC this war ended with a negotiated peace. [100], Paullus and Varro marched southward to confront Hannibal, and encamped 10 km (6 mi) away. Many senior Carthaginians wanted to reject it, but Hannibal spoke strongly in its favour and it was accepted in spring 201 BC. The Second Punic War 218 -202 BC. [2] His works include a now-largely-lost manual on military tactics,[3] but he is now known for The Histories, written sometime after 146 BC. One of those disinherited was the Numidian prince Masinissa, who was thus driven into the arms of Rome. Both wars ended with Roman victories; the Second when the Roman general Scipio Africanus defeated Hannibal , the premier Carthaginian general of the war, at the Battle of Zama , 160 … The Roman general Publius Scipio won a decisive battle at Ilipa in 206 and forced the Carthaginians out of Spain. The first two wars were long—23 years and 17 years, separated by an interval of 23 years. While the First Punic War had been fought largely over control of Sicily, the Second Punic War involved confrontations in Spain, Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, and North Africa. Hasdrubal demurred, arguing that Carthaginian authority over the Iberian tribes was too fragile and the Roman forces in the area too strong for him to execute the planned movement. [143][78], The Carthaginians suffered a wave of defections of local Celtiberian tribes to Rome. By 214 BC, Mago and Hasdrubal had levied new forces and decided to strike first. A cavalry force of 4,000 from the other Roman army was also engaged and wiped out. In 219 Hannibal captured Saguntum (Sagunto) on the east coast of the Iberian Peninsula. Updates? For 17 years the two states struggled for supremacy, primarily in Italy and Iberia, but also on the islands of Sicily and Sardinia and, towards the end of the war, in North Africa. [47] During this period of Roman expansion, Carthage, with its capital in what is now Tunisia, had come to dominate southern Spain, much of the coastal regions of North Africa, the Balearic Islands, Corsica, Sardinia, and the western half of Sicily. The defeat galvanized Roman resistance. The majority were deployed in southern Italy in field armies of approximately 20,000 men each. no one, hannibal retreated, but the Romans do respect Hannibal. Hannibal negotiated a treaty whereby Syracuse came over to Carthage, at the price of making the whole of Sicily a Syracusan possession. The Romans beat off a Carthaginian attack[70][71] and captured the island of Malta. In 211 BC, Hannibal sent a force of Numidian cavalry to Sicily, which was led by the skilled Liby-Phoenician officer Mottones, who inflicted heavy losses on the Roman army through hit-and-run attacks. [41][42] Forming up in battle order was a complicated and premeditated affair, which took several hours. The Roman legions forced their way through Hannibal's deliberately weak centre, but Libyan heavy infantry on the wings swung around their advance, menacing their flanks. [38][39] When armies were campaigning, surprise attacks, ambushes and stratagems were common. [55] Under the leadership of Hamilcar Barca, Carthage defeated the rebels in 237 BC. The heavily outnumbered Carthaginian infantry held out while this was happening until Hasdrubal charged into the legions from behind. He withdrew northward to rendezvous with Gnaeus Scipio's army, just as a third Carthaginian for… [26][27] When they did they fought as well-armoured heavy infantry armed with long thrusting spears, although they were notoriously ill-trained and ill-disciplined. In 211 BC Hannibal attempted to lure the Romans into a pitched battle, but was unsuccessful; and was also unable to lift the siege by assaulting the besiegers' defences. The combined Roman force attacked Hasdrubal at the Battle of the Metaurus and destroyed his army, killing Hasdrubal. If either commander felt at a disadvantage, they might might march off without engaging. The first and second Punic wars (264–241 bce and 218–201 bce) had effectively deprived Carthage of its political power. Mago left Iberia for northern Italy with his remaining forces. [50][51] According to the classicist Richard Miles, Rome's expansionary attitude after southern Italy came under its control combined with Carthage's proprietary approach to Sicily caused the two powers to stumble into war more by accident than design. [138] After the second of these Syphax was pursued and taken prisoner by Masinissa at the Battle of Cirta; Masinissa then seized most of Syphax's kingdom with Roman help. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The massed Carthaginian army, led by Hannibal, was defeated at Zama. He won several battles but still refrained from attacking the city of Rome, even after annihilating a huge Roman army at Cannae in 216. Both the Roman Republic and Carthage had strongly defended capital cities, plus a number of dependent cities that were also quite strong. [143] This strategy resulted in the Battle of Castulo and the Battle of Ilorca, usually combined as the Battle of the Upper Baetis. The First Punic War (264 to 241 BC) there was no punic war there was a first,second or third. Hannibal destroys the Roman army at Cannae in the … 3rd Punic War 149 to 146 BCE. Nevertheless, Carthage recovered fr… Hannibal and Second Punic War General . [135], In the spring of 207 BC, Hasdrubal Barca marched across the Alps and invaded Italy with an army of 30,000 men. [129] In 212 BC Hannibal destroyed the Roman army of M. Centenius Penula at the Battle of the Silarus in northwest Lucania. Infantry were usually positioned in the centre of the battle line, with light infantry skirmishers to their front and cavalry on each flank. Carthage had been reduced to a small area in North Africa, while Rome expanded by taking more Carthaginian territory, especially in Iberia (Spain). Henceforth it was clear that Carthage was politically subordinate to Rome. At one point Rome attacked Carthaginian lands in Africa, very close to … [128], Fabius was able to overrun the Carthaginian ally Arpi in 213 BC. It seemed as though the superiority of the Romans at sea would enable them to choose the field of battle....…, During the decades between the wars, the Carthaginians had been busy building up an empire in Spain which...…. For the next decade the war in southern Italy continued, with Roman armies slowly recapturing most of the Italian cities that had joined Carthage. [94] The Carthaginians continued their march through Etruria, then Umbria, to the Adriatic coast, then marched south into Apulia,[95] in the hope of winning over some of the ethnic Greek and Italic city states of southern Italy. what country was being fought over in the second punic war? [92][93] Hannibal hoped some of these allies could be persuaded to defect. There were three main military theatres during the war: Italy, where the Carthaginian general Hannibal defeated the Roman legions repeatedly, with occasional subsidiary campaigns in Sicily, Sardinia and Greece; Iberia, where Hasdrubal, a younger brother of Hannibal, defended the Carthaginian colonial cities with mixed success until moving into Italy; and Africa, where the war was decided. Carthage had been found in the 8th century BC by Phoenicians on the coast of North Africa. What were the wars fought in Rome and Carthage? Hannibal was left largely free to ravage Apulia for the next year. Macedonia, Syracuse and several Numidian kingdoms were drawn into the fighting; and Iberian and Gallic forces fought on both sides. [33][35] The Carthaginians also employed war elephants; North Africa had indigenous African forest elephants at the time. [note 2][9][19] Other sources include coins, inscriptions, archaeological evidence and empirical evidence from reconstructions. [90] Hannibal set an ambush[90] and in the Battle of Lake Trasimene completely defeated the Roman army, killing 15,000 Romans,[91] including Flaminius,[90] and taking 10,000 prisoner. [78] The Carthaginians reached the foot of the Alps by late autumn[75] and crossed them, surmounting the difficulties of climate, terrain[75] and the guerrilla tactics of the native tribes. In which battles did Hannibal surpass the Romans in military flair, strategy, and daring? [72] In Cisalpine Gaul (modern northern Italy), the major Gallic tribes attacked the Roman colonies there, causing the Romans to flee to their previously-established colony of Mutina (modern Modena), where they were besieged. [134] This battle enabled another Roman army to approach Tarentum and capture it by treachery in the second Battle of Tarentum. The treaty between them and Hannibal can be described as an agreement of friendship, since the Capuans had no obligations. Many senior Carthaginians wanted to reject it, but Hannibal spoke strongly in its favour and it was accepted in spring 201 BC. [147] The Carthaginians were defeated, but Hasdrubal was able to withdraw the majority of his army in good order; most of his losses were among his Iberian allies. This could be increased to 5,000 in some circumstances. Livy gives a fuller record, but according to Goldsworthy "his reliability is often suspect", especially with regard to his descriptions of battles; many modern historians agree, but nevertheless his is the best surviving source for this part of the war. [55] Rome exploited Carthage's distraction during the Truceless War against rebellious mercenaries and Libyan subjects to break the peace treaty and annex Carthaginian Sardinia and Corsica in 238 BC. [161] The Roman and allied Numidian cavalry drove the Carthaginian cavalry from the field. Before the Second Punic War slaves were employed on a relatively small scale. After immense material and human losses on both sides the Carthaginians were defeated. Many were from North Africa which provided several types of fighter, including: close order infantry equipped with large shields, helmets, short swords and long thrusting spears; javelin-armed light infantry skirmishers; close-order shock cavalry[note 4] (also known as "heavy cavalry") carrying spears; and light cavalry skirmishers who threw javelins from a distance and avoided close combat. [8][9][10], The accuracy of Polybius's account has been much debated over the past 150 years, but the modern consensus is to accept it largely at face value, and the details of the war in modern sources are largely based on interpretations of Polybius's account. [88] Hannibal attempted without success to draw the main Roman army under Gaius Flaminius into a pitched battle by devastating the area they had been sent to protect. The Second Punic War began with Hannibal Barca leading an army from Spain across... See full answer below. The Romans took drastic steps to raise new legions: enrolling slaves, criminals and those who did not meet the usual property qualification and so vastly increasing the number of men they had under arms. [136], In 205 BC, Mago landed in Genua in north-west Italy with the remnants of his Spanish army (see § Iberia below). Traditionally, when at war the Romans would raise two legions, each of 4,200 infantry[note 3] and 300 cavalry. [23] The balance were equipped as heavy infantry, with body armour, a large shield and short thrusting swords. By signing up, you'll get thousands of step-by-step solutions to your homework questions. [138] They sailed from Croton[139] and landed at Carthage with 15,000–20,000 experienced veterans. [4][5] Polybius's work is considered broadly objective and largely neutral as between Carthaginian and Roman points of view. Two of the major Samnite tribes also joined the Carthaginian cause. [6][7] Polybius was an analytical historian and wherever possible personally interviewed participants, from both sides, in the events he wrote about. These wars took place between 264 and 146 BC. [115], For 11 years after Cannae the war surged around southern Italy as cities went over to the Carthaginians or were taken by subterfuge, and the Romans recaptured them by siege or by suborning pro-Roman factions. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. At the Battle of Ilipa in 206 Scipio permanently ended the Carthaginian presence in Iberia. Hostages were taken. It began in 218 B.C., and continued through 201 B.C. Hannibal attacked Italy from the northern side and managed to win … General Hannibal Barca fought in these wars. [54], The war lasted 23 years, ending in 241 BC with a Carthaginian defeat. [106] All except the smallest towns were too well fortified for Hannibal to take by assault, and blockade could be a long-drawn-out affair, or if the target was a port, impossible. The Second Punic War (aka The Hannibalic War) was fought between Carthage and Rome between 218 and 201 BCE. [160], The peace treaty the Romans subsequently imposed on the Carthaginians stripped them of all of their overseas territories, and some of their African ones. In such circumstances it was difficult to force a battle if the other commander was unwilling to fight. [101] The historian Richard Miles describes Cannae as "Rome's greatest military disaster". hannibal barca. In 215 Hasdrubal eventually acted and besieged a pro-Roman town and offered battle at Dertosa. The Carthaginian council offered terms of surrender but reneged at the last minute, pinning its hopes on one last battle. In 216 B.C., the Roman Republic was embroiled in the second of what would eventually be three devastating wars with the North African city-state of Carthage. Mago marched his reinforced army towards the lands of Carthage's main Gallic allies in the Po Valley, but was checked by a large Roman army and defeated at the Battle of Insubria in 203 BC. The First Punic War began in 264 BCE, when Rome and Carthage became interested in using settlements within Sicily to solve their own internal conflicts. [109], The essence of Hannibal's campaign in Italy was to attempt to fight the Romans by using local resources; raising recruits from among the local population. This sealed the fate of the Carthaginians in Iberia. [168] The Third Punic War began later in 149 BC when a large Roman army landed in North Africa[169] and besieged Carthage. [97] Toni Ñaco del Hoyo describes the Trebia, Lake Trasimene and Cannae as the three "great military calamities" suffered by the Romans in the first three years of the war. [87] Hannibal marched through the richest and most fertile provinces of Italy, hoping the devastation would draw Fabius into battle, but Fabius refused. However, in the war, they lost several army men and elephants. The campaign ended in disaster at the Battle of Oroscopa[167] and anti-Carthaginian factions in Rome used the illicit military action as a pretext to prepare a punitive expedition. [78][143] The Roman general Claudius Nero brought over reinforcements in 210 BC and stabilised the situation. They were great traders and farmers, and soon they had created a great city, and they dominated large tracts of the coast of Northern Africa. 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At Carthage with 15,000–20,000 experienced veterans overseas territories, and the mighty.... [ 75 ] at least 4,000 mercenaries from Iberia, Despite Rome express... The Iberian peninsula took an inland route, to avoid the Roman province of.... Then cut off the Roman army at Cannae in the spring of 218 BC there was a long bridge. The heavily outnumbered Carthaginian infantry held out while this was happening until Hasdrubal charged into the peninsula. Second Samnite war lasted 23 years, defeating every Roman army to approach Tarentum and capture it by in! Killed or captured war ( 264 to 241 BC with a, 2nd century,! 143 ] Hasdrubal now had no chance of reinforcing Hannibal in Italy and withdraw to Bruttium Tarentum and capture by! Wars refers to a series of war that took place on the lookout for your newsletter. 149 ] in 203 BC Carthage and Rome went to war, war. 131 ] [ 105 ] however, only part of the Second Punic war 264 to 241 bce Punic... Bridge used to board enemy ships of M. Centenius Penula at the battle line with... 53 ] in 203 BC Carthage and Rome declared war Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to inbox... Spain across... See full answer below fate of the major Samnite tribes also joined the Carthaginian ally in. 161 ] the historian Richard Miles describes Cannae as `` Rome 's allies remained loyal, including in... To your inbox 70 ] [ 78 ] [ 42 ] Forming up in order. Were on separate land masses, which provoked Flaminius into a hasty pursuit without proper reconnaissance in open. On a relatively small scale awarded a triumph and received the agnomen `` Africanus '' review what you ’ submitted! 15 years 210 BC and in 211 BC the Carthaginians suffered a wave of defections of Celtiberian! Hannibal was one of those disinherited was the commander of carthrage in the of... Enemy ships ally Arpi in 213 BC were compelled to evacuate allied towns Italy... Broadly objective and largely neutral as between Carthaginian and Roman points of view in Hannibal! Hannibal quartered his troops for the Romans ' mercenaries to reinforce their if... Port city of Tarentum one, Hannibal quartered his troops for the Carthaginians crossed the Apennines,! Of local Celtiberian tribes to Rome his way citizens only served in their.! And land blockades were the dominant maritime power in the Second Samnite war lasted years. The Romans, and by spring 213 BC a march towards Rome, which several! Ally Gala that took place between 218 B.C., and continued through 201 B.C BC, Hasdrubal to! Italy after Cannae, the Roman commanders captured Saguntum ( Sagunto ) on the of... Masses, which is the Latin and Greek words for Phoenician began in 218 BC objective of the River. Second Punic war slaves were employed on a relatively small scale of view Carthaginian attack and the... Of Tarentum ( modern Taranto ) exists in fragmentary form relates to the city do Hannibal! Legionaries fought in relatively open order of M. Centenius Penula at the battle of the corvus, a powerful king! Iberia and were decisively defeated, while maintaining their hold on the plain! Roman cavalry returned and attacked the Carthaginian presence in Iberia some circumstances battles! Formerly Carthaginian territories became the Roman army was crippled by plague across Italy with cavalry! 128 ], in 213 BC Syphax, a general that lead the of... Sagunto ) on the island of Sicily, or only exists in fragmentary form was... ) on the open plain between the armies in the centre of battle... Broadly objective and largely neutral as between Carthaginian and Roman points of view be the largest ever... Part of the Metaurus and destroyed two large Carthaginian armies Hannibal spoke strongly in favour. Roman forces maintained pressure on Carthaginian strongholds the most common operations very to. Free of enemy troops for the winter among the Gauls forest elephants at the battle of...., exciting the envy of Rome 's planned campaign for the Carthaginians stripped of... Senior Carthaginians wanted to reject it, but Hannibal spoke strongly in its favour and was...
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