; tabulations by authors. It is, in fact, the important role of immigration to the nation—socially and economically—that may be undermined by high-skill guest worker programs. Instead, the United States has a fluid system in which career paths can be pursued through a range of disciplines and educational experiences. There was widespread political reaction. In addition, in earlier research my colleague Radha Biswas and I found that a large portion of IT guest workers are the necessary conduit for offshoring IT work, because an offshore project requires about a third of the team to be onshore to work with the client, do requirements analysis, and liaise with the offshore team. And among students who graduate within six years of enrollment, the number who start with a non-STEM major but graduate with a STEM degree is greater than the number who start in a STEM major and graduate with a non-STEM degree (see Figure 2). While the US Congress passes secretive, sloppy funding legislation and patent offices in different jurisdictions craft incoherent policies, a hot debate plays out about whether, when, and under what conditions it might make sense to introduce heritable forms of genome editing into human beings. The STEM workforce in the US has long been home to a significant portion of talented foreign-born workers – about 20-25% according to the American Immigration Council. STEM Workforce Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) careers include a wide variety of job titles within fields such as engineering, health care, and the physical and social sciences. Perhaps even more telling, despite decades of supposedly low performance by U.S. students, the world has seen no credible competitors to the nation’s innovation regions (Silicon Valley in California, Route 128/Kendall Square in Massachusetts, Research Triangle Park in North Carolina, the biopharma corridor of New York and New Jersey). Analyses typically compare STEM graduate salaries with those of all graduates, or STEM occupations with all occupations. “I think this is an area where we’re looking for clearer guidance from the government. Computer science graduates in 1998 often looked to Microsoft as the hottest employer in town—and as it turned out, for good reason. 2003–2004 Baccalaureate and Beyond Survey (B&B) Nearly 70% of employers reported talent shortages in 2019, a jump of 17 points in only one year and more than three times higher than a decade ago. The question is, whether our colleges and universities are producing enough future engineers and scientists to … “We have not yet found ways to link industry’s workforce needs effectively and efficiently to the rate at which federal R&D investments can or should change. The industry responded to the challenges in similar fashion as its forbears: It trained legions of capable, if unskilled, workers in the interior (but of India, not the United States) and imported guest workers, often by routing them through colleges that could give them the industry-relevant skills to be employable. During the 1990s, demand increased across the IT industry, as new products were developed, PCs proliferated, and inexperienced users needed ever greater levels of support. Depending on the definition used, today's STEM workforce includes employees across a wide swath of disciplines and job arenas, possessing everything from non-degree certifications to … It is in this context that it is possible to understand the genesis of the talent shortage claims. And read what others are saying in our lively Forum section. Workers in a Global Job Market,”, B. Lindsay Lowell and Harold Salzman, “Making the Grade,”. 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